Chapter 8 Vocab part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Vocab part 2 Deck (24):
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Successive Approximation

Steps taken to achieve a desired behavior

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Reinforcer

In operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows

A stimulus or an event that follows a response and increases the likelihood that the response will be repeated

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Positive reinforcement

Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli; such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response

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Negative reinforcement

Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli; such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. NOT A PUNISHMENT

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Primary reinforcers

An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need

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Conditioned reinforcers (secondary)

A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer

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Punishment

An event that decreases the behavior that it follows

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Positive Punishment

Adding something aversive that decreases the likelihood the behavior will be repeated

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Negative Punishment

Withdraw a desirable stimulus to decrease the likelihood the behavior will be repeated

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Continuous reinforcement

Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs

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Partial (intermittent) reinforcement

Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement

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Fixed-ratio schedule

In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforcers a response only after a specified number of responses

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Variable-ratio schedule

In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses

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Fixed-interval schedule

In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed

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Variable-interval schedule

In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals

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Latent learning

Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

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Cognitive learning

A mental representation of the layout of one's environment

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Intrinsic motivation

A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake

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Extrinsic motivation

A desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment

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Observational learning

Learning by observing others

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Modeling

The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior

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Mirror neurons

Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brains mirroring of another's action may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy

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Albert Bandura

Famous for bobo doll experiments

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Prosocial behavior

Positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior