Chapter 4 Vocab Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Vocab Part 2 Deck (26):
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Critical Period

An optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development

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Imprinting

The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life

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Basic Trust

A sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers

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Self-Concept

A sense of one's identity and personal worth

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Authoritarian Parents

Impose rules and expect obedience

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Permissive Parents

Submit to their children's desires, make few demands, and use little punishment

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Authoritative Parents

Both demanding and responsive

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Adolescence

The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence

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Puberty

The period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing

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Primary Sex Traits

The body structures that make sexual reproduction possible

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Secondary Sex Traits

Nonreproductive sexual characteristics

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Lawrence Kohlberg

Described the development of moral reasoning; the thinking that occurs as we consider right and wrong
Believed we pass through 3 basic levels of moral reasoning

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Pre conventional Morality

Stage of character development
Children obey either to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards

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Conventional Morality

Stage of character development
Children uphold laws and social rules simply because they are the laws and rules

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Post conventional Morality

By young adulthood, people begin to affirm their own agreed-upon rights or follows what one personally perceives as basic ethical principles

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Menarche

First menstrual period

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Erik Erikson

Created an 8-stage theory that helped explain development from birth to death

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Identity

One's sense of self; the adolescents task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles

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Intimacy

The ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood

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Menopause

The time of natural cessation of menstruation, also reefers to the biological changes a women experiences as her ability to reproduce declines

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Alzheimer's Disease

Progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and physical functioning

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Cross-Sectional Study

A study in which people of different ages are compared with one another

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Longitudinal Study

Research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period

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Crystallized Intelligence

Ones accumulated knowledge and verbal skills, tends to increase with age

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Fluid Intelligence

Ones ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood

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Social Clock

The culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement