Flashcards in Chapter 2-biochemistry- Carbohydrates, Lipids and Protein Deck (51)
What do organic compounds contain?
What are the exceptions of carbon which aren't in organic compounds?
Hydrogen carbonates (HCO3-), carbonates (CO3^2-) and oxides of carbon (CO,CO2)
What are inorganic compounds made of?
All other compounds
Carbohydrates- what are they?
Are organic compounds consisting of one or more simple sugars that as monomers follow the general formula (CH2O)
Carbohydrates- Draw the example glucose and ribose
Carbohydrates- what is monosaccharide?
Any class of sugars (e.g glucose) that cannot be hydrated to give a simpler sugar
Carbohydrates- give 3 examples of monosaccharides?
Glucose, galactose, fructose
Carbohydrates- what does disaccharide mean?
Any class of sugars whose molecules contain a 2 monosaccharide residues.
Carbohydrates- give example of disaccharide
Lactose, maltose, sucrose
Carbohydrates- what is polysaccharide?
A carbohydrate whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecule bonded together
Carbohydrates- give examples of polysaccharides
Cellulose, glycogen and starch
Carbohydrates- what is the function of glucose in animals?
Source of energy which can be broken down to form ATP via cellular respiration
Carbohydrates- what is the function of lactose in animals?
A sugar found in the milk of mammals, provides energy for sucking infants
Carbohydrates- what is the function of glycogen in animals?
Used by animals for short term energy storage (between meals) in the liver
Carbohydrates- what is the function of fructose in plants?
Found in honey and onions, very sweet and good source of energy
Carbohydrates- what is the function of sucrose?
Used primarily as a transportable energy form (e.g sugar beets and sugar canes)
Carbohydrates- what is the function of cellulose?
Used by plant cells as a strengthening component of the cell wall
Carbohydrates- when does condensation (dehydration) reactions occur?
When molecules are covalently joined together and water is formed as a by- product
In carbohydrates what is the bond that is formed via condensation reactions called?
What is a condensation reaction?
Is hydrolysis re reaction which requires a water molecule to break a covalent bond between 2 sub units
Carbohydrates- When a single monomer joins what is it called?
Carbohydrates- when a sugar contains multiple subunits (more than 10) what are they called?
Draw condensation reaction matey
Do it Martha.
Lipids- what are they?
Group of organic molecules that are insoluble in water but soluble in non- polar solvents
What are 3 examples of lipids?
Triglycerides (fats and oils), phospholipids, steroids
Lipids- what does saturated mean?
No double bond
What does unsaturated mean?
Draw the general structure of a lipid, a saturated lipid and a unsaturated lipid
Do it Martha.
Lipids- what does condensation reaction occur between?
3 hydroxyl groups of glycerol and the carboxyl groups of 3 fatty acids.