Chapter 2- Biochemistry- Transcription/Translation Flashcards

0
Q

Where does translation occur?

A

Cytoplasm

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1
Q

Where does transcription occur?

A

Nucleus

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2
Q

-What are the differences between DNA and RNA regarding sugar?

A

DNA- has sugar deoxyribose

RNA- has sugar ribose

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3
Q

T- What are the differences between DNA and RNA regarding bases?

A

DNA- has base thymine

RNA- has base uracil

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4
Q

What are the difference between DNA and RNA regarding strands?

A

DNA-double stranded

RNA- single stranded

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5
Q

What are the differences between RNA and DNA regarding helix?

A

DNA- forms double helix

RNA- doesn’t form double helix

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6
Q

What is the process of transcription?

A

Process by which an RNA sequence is produced from a DNA template

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7
Q

Transcription- What does RNA polymerase separate?

What does it synthesis?

A

Separates the DNA strands and synthesis a complementary RNA copy from one of the DNA strands.

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8
Q

Transcription- How does RNA polymerase synthesis a complementary RNA copy from one of the DNA stands?

A

It covalently bonds ribonucleotise triphosphate that align opposite their exposed complementary partner

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9
Q

Transcription-Once RNA has been synthesised what does RNA polymerase do?

A

Detach itself from DNA molecule and double helix will reform

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10
Q

Transcription- What is the sequence DNA that has been transcribed into RNA called?

A

A gene

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11
Q

Transcription-Name the 3 main types of RNA made and what are they?

A
Messenger RNA (mRNA)- a transcript copy of a gene used to encode a polypeptide
Transfer RNA (tRNA)- clover leaf shaped sequence that carries an amino acids
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)- primarily a component of ribosomes
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12
Q

Draw the process of transcription

A

Do it do it do it

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13
Q

Genetic code- What is the genetic code?

A

Set of rules by which encoded mRNA sequence is converted into proteins (amino acid sequence) by living cells.

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14
Q

Genetic code- What are condones?

A

Are a triplet of bases which encodes a particular amino acid

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15
Q

Genetic code-There are 4 bases so how many condones combinations?

A

64

16
Q

Genetic code-What does the order of condones determine?

A

The amino acid sequence for a protein

17
Q

Genetic code-What does codon always start with?

A

AUG

18
Q

Genetic code- What are the 2 features of the genetic code?

A

Universal- everything uses same code

Degenerate- only 20 amino acids but 64 codons= more than one codon may code for the same amino acid

19
Q

What is the Process of translation leading to polypeptide formation ?

A

Process of protein synthesis in which genetic information encoded in mRNA is translated into a sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain

20
Q

Translation- What do ribosomes bind to?

What does it move along to till?

A

Bind to mRNA in cells cytoplasm and move along in a 5’–> 3’ direction till it reaches start (AUG)

21
Q

Translation-What do anticodons on tRNA molecules align to?

A

Align opposite appropriate codons according to complementary base pairing (e.g UAC–>AUG)

22
Q

Translation-What does each tRNA molecule carry?

A

Specific amino acids (according to genetic code)

23
Q

Translation-What do ribosomes catalyse?

A

Catalyse the formation of specific peptide bonds through condensation reactions between adjacent amino acids

24
Q

Translation-Ribosomes move along mRNA molecule synthesising a polypeptide chain until when?

A

Reaches stop codon- translation stops and chain is released

25
Q

Draw process of translation

A

Come on martha moon do it

26
Q

Relationship between 1 gene and 1 polypeptide- When a gene is mutated may lead to
What?

A

Synthesis of defective polypeptide = affects protein function

27
Q

Relationship between 1 gene and 1 polypeptide- how is a gene sequence converted to a polypeptide chain?

A

Via the process of transcription (making mRNA transcript) and translation (polypeptide synthesis)

28
Q

Relationship between 1 gene and 1 polypeptide-How does translation use tRNA molecules and ribosomes?

A

To join amino acids into a polypeptide chain according to mRNA sequence (codon)

29
Q

Relationship between 1 gene and 1 polypeptide- The universality between the genetic code means all organisms while the same relationship between what? Which allows what technique to be employed?

A

Show the same relationship between genes and polypeptides and this allows transgenic techniques to be employed

30
Q

Relationship between 1 gene and 1 polypeptide- some proteins may consider of a number of polypeptide chains what does this mean it needs multiples of?

A

Genes