Flashcards in Chapter 2- Biochemistry- Transcription/Translation Deck (31)
Where does transcription occur?
Where does translation occur?
-What are the differences between DNA and RNA regarding sugar?
DNA- has sugar deoxyribose
RNA- has sugar ribose
T- What are the differences between DNA and RNA regarding bases?
DNA- has base thymine
RNA- has base uracil
What are the difference between DNA and RNA regarding strands?
RNA- single stranded
What are the differences between RNA and DNA regarding helix?
DNA- forms double helix
RNA- doesn't form double helix
What is the process of transcription?
Process by which an RNA sequence is produced from a DNA template
Transcription- What does RNA polymerase separate?
What does it synthesis?
Separates the DNA strands and synthesis a complementary RNA copy from one of the DNA strands.
Transcription- How does RNA polymerase synthesis a complementary RNA copy from one of the DNA stands?
It covalently bonds ribonucleotise triphosphate that align opposite their exposed complementary partner
Transcription-Once RNA has been synthesised what does RNA polymerase do?
Detach itself from DNA molecule and double helix will reform
Transcription- What is the sequence DNA that has been transcribed into RNA called?
Transcription-Name the 3 main types of RNA made and what are they?
Messenger RNA (mRNA)- a transcript copy of a gene used to encode a polypeptide
Transfer RNA (tRNA)- clover leaf shaped sequence that carries an amino acids
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)- primarily a component of ribosomes
Draw the process of transcription
Do it do it do it
Genetic code- What is the genetic code?
Set of rules by which encoded mRNA sequence is converted into proteins (amino acid sequence) by living cells.
Genetic code- What are condones?
Are a triplet of bases which encodes a particular amino acid
Genetic code-There are 4 bases so how many condones combinations?
Genetic code-What does the order of condones determine?
The amino acid sequence for a protein
Genetic code-What does codon always start with?
Genetic code- What are the 2 features of the genetic code?
Universal- everything uses same code
Degenerate- only 20 amino acids but 64 codons= more than one codon may code for the same amino acid
What is the Process of translation leading to polypeptide formation ?
Process of protein synthesis in which genetic information encoded in mRNA is translated into a sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain
Translation- What do ribosomes bind to?
What does it move along to till?
Bind to mRNA in cells cytoplasm and move along in a 5'--> 3' direction till it reaches start (AUG)
Translation-What do anticodons on tRNA molecules align to?
Align opposite appropriate codons according to complementary base pairing (e.g UAC-->AUG)
Translation-What does each tRNA molecule carry?
Specific amino acids (according to genetic code)
Translation-What do ribosomes catalyse?
Catalyse the formation of specific peptide bonds through condensation reactions between adjacent amino acids
Translation-Ribosomes move along mRNA molecule synthesising a polypeptide chain until when?
Reaches stop codon- translation stops and chain is released
Draw process of translation
Come on martha moon do it
Relationship between 1 gene and 1 polypeptide- When a gene is mutated may lead to
Synthesis of defective polypeptide = affects protein function
Relationship between 1 gene and 1 polypeptide- how is a gene sequence converted to a polypeptide chain?
Via the process of transcription (making mRNA transcript) and translation (polypeptide synthesis)
Relationship between 1 gene and 1 polypeptide-How does translation use tRNA molecules and ribosomes?
To join amino acids into a polypeptide chain according to mRNA sequence (codon)