Where does translation occur?
Where does transcription occur?
-What are the differences between DNA and RNA regarding sugar?
DNA- has sugar deoxyribose
RNA- has sugar ribose
T- What are the differences between DNA and RNA regarding bases?
DNA- has base thymine
RNA- has base uracil
What are the difference between DNA and RNA regarding strands?
RNA- single stranded
What are the differences between RNA and DNA regarding helix?
DNA- forms double helix
RNA- doesn’t form double helix
What is the process of transcription?
Process by which an RNA sequence is produced from a DNA template
Transcription- What does RNA polymerase separate?
What does it synthesis?
Separates the DNA strands and synthesis a complementary RNA copy from one of the DNA strands.
Transcription- How does RNA polymerase synthesis a complementary RNA copy from one of the DNA stands?
It covalently bonds ribonucleotise triphosphate that align opposite their exposed complementary partner
Transcription-Once RNA has been synthesised what does RNA polymerase do?
Detach itself from DNA molecule and double helix will reform
Transcription- What is the sequence DNA that has been transcribed into RNA called?
Transcription-Name the 3 main types of RNA made and what are they?
Messenger RNA (mRNA)- a transcript copy of a gene used to encode a polypeptide Transfer RNA (tRNA)- clover leaf shaped sequence that carries an amino acids Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)- primarily a component of ribosomes
Draw the process of transcription
Do it do it do it
Genetic code- What is the genetic code?
Set of rules by which encoded mRNA sequence is converted into proteins (amino acid sequence) by living cells.
Genetic code- What are condones?
Are a triplet of bases which encodes a particular amino acid
Genetic code-There are 4 bases so how many condones combinations?
Genetic code-What does the order of condones determine?
The amino acid sequence for a protein
Genetic code-What does codon always start with?
Genetic code- What are the 2 features of the genetic code?
Universal- everything uses same code
Degenerate- only 20 amino acids but 64 codons= more than one codon may code for the same amino acid
What is the Process of translation leading to polypeptide formation ?
Process of protein synthesis in which genetic information encoded in mRNA is translated into a sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain
Translation- What do ribosomes bind to?
What does it move along to till?
Bind to mRNA in cells cytoplasm and move along in a 5’–> 3’ direction till it reaches start (AUG)
Translation-What do anticodons on tRNA molecules align to?
Align opposite appropriate codons according to complementary base pairing (e.g UAC–>AUG)
Translation-What does each tRNA molecule carry?
Specific amino acids (according to genetic code)
Translation-What do ribosomes catalyse?
Catalyse the formation of specific peptide bonds through condensation reactions between adjacent amino acids
Translation-Ribosomes move along mRNA molecule synthesising a polypeptide chain until when?
Reaches stop codon- translation stops and chain is released
Draw process of translation
Come on martha moon do it
Relationship between 1 gene and 1 polypeptide- When a gene is mutated may lead to
Synthesis of defective polypeptide = affects protein function
Relationship between 1 gene and 1 polypeptide- how is a gene sequence converted to a polypeptide chain?
Via the process of transcription (making mRNA transcript) and translation (polypeptide synthesis)
Relationship between 1 gene and 1 polypeptide-How does translation use tRNA molecules and ribosomes?
To join amino acids into a polypeptide chain according to mRNA sequence (codon)
Relationship between 1 gene and 1 polypeptide- The universality between the genetic code means all organisms while the same relationship between what? Which allows what technique to be employed?
Show the same relationship between genes and polypeptides and this allows transgenic techniques to be employed
Relationship between 1 gene and 1 polypeptide- some proteins may consider of a number of polypeptide chains what does this mean it needs multiples of?