Flashcards in Chapter 2- Carbohydrates And Lipids Deck (30)
What are 3 examples of monosaccharides?
What are monosaccharides?
Single sugar units
What are disaccharides made of ?
Two monosaccharides linked together
What are polysaccharides made of?
Consist of many monosaccharides linked together
2 examples of disaccharides?
3 examples of polysaccharides?
What is the reaction called that combines monosaccharides ?
What does condensation reaction involve?
Lose of an OH from one molecule and a H from another which forms a water molecule
What type of process is condensation reaction?
Anabolic process- needs energy to do it
What type of reaction is the opposite of a condensation reaction and what happens?
What are triglycerides formed of?
By condensation reaction from 3 fatty acids and one glycerol
What are lipids insoluble in?
What is an example of triglycerides?
The fat in adipose tissue in humans and the oil in sunflower seeds
How many molecules of water are produced when a triglycerides is formed?
3 water molecules
What linkage is formed between each fatty acid and glycerol ?
An ester bond
What are triglycerides used for?
Used as energy stores- the energy can then be released by aerobic cell respiration
Good heat insulators
Show formation of a triglycerides from glycerol and 3 fatty acids
Lipids are more suitable for long term energy storage than what
What are monosaccharide monomers linked together by?
Condensation reactions to form disaccharide and polysaccharide polymers
What are the similarities of carbohydrates and lipids in energy storage?
-complex carbohydrates (e.g polysaccharide) and lipids both contain a lot of chemical energy that can be used for energy storage.
-complex carbohydrates and lipids are both insoluble in water- not easily transported
-carbohydrates and lipids both burn cleaner than proteins (do not yield nitrogen wastage)
What are the differences in carbohydrates and lipids in energy storage?
lipid molecules contain more energy per gram than carbohydrates
-carbohydrates are more readily digested than lipids and release there energy quicker
-monosaccharides and disaccharides are water soluble and easier to transport to and from sites than lipids
-animals tend to use carbohydrates for short term energy storage while lipids are used for more long-term energy storage.
-carbohydrates Are stored as glycogen in animals while lipids are stored as fats
-carbohydrates stored as cellulose and lipids as proteins
-lipids have less effect on osmotic pressure which a cell than complete carbohydrate.
What is a saturated fatty acid ?
A fatty acid with single bonds between all of its carbon atoms therefore contains as much hydrogen bonds as possible
What is a unsaturated fatty acid?
Fatty acids that have one or more double bonds - contain less hydrogen
What is monounsaturated fatty acid?
If there is one double bind
What is polyunsaturated ?
More than one double bond
What can unsaturated fatty acids be?
Cis or trans isomers
What is a cis- fatty acid?
The hydrogen atoms are nearly always on the same side of two carbon atoms that are double bonded
what is trans-fatty acids?
The alternative to cis-fatty acids for the hydrogens to be on the opposite sides
Explain cis- fatty acid
There is a bend in the hydrocarbon chain at the double bond. This makes triglycerides containing cis-fatty acids less good at picking together in regular arrays than saturated fatty acids, so it lower the melting point - usually liquid at room temp- oils