Chapter 2- Carbohydrates And Lipids Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2- Carbohydrates And Lipids Deck (30)
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1
Q
What are 3 examples of monosaccharides?
A
1) glucose
2) fructose
3) ribose
2
Q
What are monosaccharides?
A
Single sugar units
3
Q
What are disaccharides made of ?
A
Two monosaccharides linked together
4
Q
What are polysaccharides made of?
A
Consist of many monosaccharides linked together
5
Q
2 examples of disaccharides?
A
1) maltose
2) sucrose
6
Q
3 examples of polysaccharides?
A
1) starch
2) glycogen
3) cellulose
7
Q
What is the reaction called that combines monosaccharides ?
A
Condensation reaction
8
Q
What does condensation reaction involve?
A
Lose of an OH from one molecule and a H from another which forms a water molecule
9
Q
What type of process is condensation reaction?
A
Anabolic process- needs energy to do it
10
Q
What type of reaction is the opposite of a condensation reaction and what happens?
A
Hydrolysis reaction
11
Q
What are triglycerides formed of?
A
By condensation reaction from 3 fatty acids and one glycerol
12
Q
What are lipids insoluble in?
A
Water
13
Q
What is an example of triglycerides?
A
The fat in adipose tissue in humans and the oil in sunflower seeds
14
Q
How many molecules of water are produced when a triglycerides is formed?
A
3 water molecules
15
Q
What linkage is formed between each fatty acid and glycerol ?
A
An ester bond
16
Q
What are triglycerides used for?
A
Used as energy stores- the energy can then be released by aerobic cell respiration
Good heat insulators
17
Q
Show formation of a triglycerides from glycerol and 3 fatty acids
A
Do ittttttt
18
Q
Lipids are more suitable for long term energy storage than what
A
Cabohydrates
19
Q
What are monosaccharide monomers linked together by?
A
Condensation reactions to form disaccharide and polysaccharide polymers
20
Q
What are the similarities of carbohydrates and lipids in energy storage?
A
-complex carbohydrates (e.g polysaccharide) and lipids both contain a lot of chemical energy that can be used for energy storage.
-complex carbohydrates and lipids are both insoluble in water- not easily transported
-carbohydrates and lipids both burn cleaner than proteins (do not yield nitrogen wastage)
21
Q
What are the differences in carbohydrates and lipids in energy storage?
A
lipid molecules contain more energy per gram than carbohydrates
-carbohydrates are more readily digested than lipids and release there energy quicker
-monosaccharides and disaccharides are water soluble and easier to transport to and from sites than lipids
-animals tend to use carbohydrates for short term energy storage while lipids are used for more long-term energy storage.
-carbohydrates Are stored as glycogen in animals while lipids are stored as fats
-carbohydrates stored as cellulose and lipids as proteins
-lipids have less effect on osmotic pressure which a cell than complete carbohydrate.
22
Q
What is a saturated fatty acid ?
A
A fatty acid with single bonds between all of its carbon atoms therefore contains as much hydrogen bonds as possible
23
Q
What is a unsaturated fatty acid?
A
Fatty acids that have one or more double bonds - contain less hydrogen
24
Q
What is monounsaturated fatty acid?
A
If there is one double bind
25
Q
What is polyunsaturated ?
A
More than one double bond
26
Q
What can unsaturated fatty acids be?
A
Cis or trans isomers
27
Q
What is a cis- fatty acid?
A
The hydrogen atoms are nearly always on the same side of two carbon atoms that are double bonded
28
Q
what is trans-fatty acids?
A
The alternative to cis-fatty acids for the hydrogens to be on the opposite sides
29
Q
Explain cis- fatty acid
A
There is a bend in the hydrocarbon chain at the double bond. This makes triglycerides containing cis-fatty acids less good at picking together in regular arrays than saturated fatty acids, so it lower the melting point - usually liquid at room temp- oils
30
Q
Explain trans-fatty acids
A
Don't have a bend in the hydrocarbon chain at the double bond so have higher melting points and are solid at room temp. Produced artificially

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