Chapter 2- Carbohydrates And Lipids Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2- Carbohydrates And Lipids Deck (30)
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1
Q

What are 3 examples of monosaccharides?

A

1) glucose
2) fructose
3) ribose

2
Q

What are monosaccharides?

A

Single sugar units

3
Q

What are disaccharides made of ?

A

Two monosaccharides linked together

4
Q

What are polysaccharides made of?

A

Consist of many monosaccharides linked together

5
Q

2 examples of disaccharides?

A

1) maltose

2) sucrose

6
Q

3 examples of polysaccharides?

A

1) starch
2) glycogen
3) cellulose

7
Q

What is the reaction called that combines monosaccharides ?

A

Condensation reaction

8
Q

What does condensation reaction involve?

A

Lose of an OH from one molecule and a H from another which forms a water molecule

9
Q

What type of process is condensation reaction?

A

Anabolic process- needs energy to do it

10
Q

What type of reaction is the opposite of a condensation reaction and what happens?

A

Hydrolysis reaction

11
Q

What are triglycerides formed of?

A

By condensation reaction from 3 fatty acids and one glycerol

12
Q

What are lipids insoluble in?

A

Water

13
Q

What is an example of triglycerides?

A

The fat in adipose tissue in humans and the oil in sunflower seeds

14
Q

How many molecules of water are produced when a triglycerides is formed?

A

3 water molecules

15
Q

What linkage is formed between each fatty acid and glycerol ?

A

An ester bond

16
Q

What are triglycerides used for?

A

Used as energy stores- the energy can then be released by aerobic cell respiration
Good heat insulators

17
Q

Show formation of a triglycerides from glycerol and 3 fatty acids

A

Do ittttttt

18
Q

Lipids are more suitable for long term energy storage than what

A

Cabohydrates

19
Q

What are monosaccharide monomers linked together by?

A

Condensation reactions to form disaccharide and polysaccharide polymers

20
Q

What are the similarities of carbohydrates and lipids in energy storage?

A
  • complex carbohydrates (e.g polysaccharide) and lipids both contain a lot of chemical energy that can be used for energy storage.
  • complex carbohydrates and lipids are both insoluble in water- not easily transported
  • carbohydrates and lipids both burn cleaner than proteins (do not yield nitrogen wastage)
21
Q

What are the differences in carbohydrates and lipids in energy storage?

A

lipid molecules contain more energy per gram than carbohydrates

  • carbohydrates are more readily digested than lipids and release there energy quicker
  • monosaccharides and disaccharides are water soluble and easier to transport to and from sites than lipids
  • animals tend to use carbohydrates for short term energy storage while lipids are used for more long-term energy storage.
  • carbohydrates Are stored as glycogen in animals while lipids are stored as fats
  • carbohydrates stored as cellulose and lipids as proteins
  • lipids have less effect on osmotic pressure which a cell than complete carbohydrate.
22
Q

What is a saturated fatty acid ?

A

A fatty acid with single bonds between all of its carbon atoms therefore contains as much hydrogen bonds as possible

23
Q

What is a unsaturated fatty acid?

A

Fatty acids that have one or more double bonds - contain less hydrogen

24
Q

What is monounsaturated fatty acid?

A

If there is one double bind

25
Q

What is polyunsaturated ?

A

More than one double bond

26
Q

What can unsaturated fatty acids be?

A

Cis or trans isomers

27
Q

What is a cis- fatty acid?

A

The hydrogen atoms are nearly always on the same side of two carbon atoms that are double bonded

28
Q

what is trans-fatty acids?

A

The alternative to cis-fatty acids for the hydrogens to be on the opposite sides

29
Q

Explain cis- fatty acid

A

There is a bend in the hydrocarbon chain at the double bond. This makes triglycerides containing cis-fatty acids less good at picking together in regular arrays than saturated fatty acids, so it lower the melting point - usually liquid at room temp- oils

30
Q

Explain trans-fatty acids

A

Don’t have a bend in the hydrocarbon chain at the double bond so have higher melting points and are solid at room temp. Produced artificially

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