Chapter 1- Cell Division Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1- Cell Division Deck (24)
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0
Q

What is mitosis?

A

Mitosis is the division of the nucleus in two genetically identical daughter nuclei

1
Q

What is interphase?:G1?

A

Growth of cell and increase in number of organelles

2
Q

Interphase: What is S phase

A

Replication of chromosomes copies remaining attached to one another

3
Q

Interphase: What is G2?

A

Further growth occurs, organelles increase in number, DNA condenses to form visible chromosomes, micro tubules begin to form

4
Q

What happens after G2?

A

After interphase and the DNA has replicated, the cell moves into mitosis

5
Q

What happens during mitosis

A

During mitosis the replicated chromosomes separate and move to opposite poles of the cell thus providing the same genetic material to each of these locations

6
Q

What are the 4 phases of mitosis

A

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

7
Q

What 2 things happens in metaphase

A

1) all replicated chromosomes (chromatid pairs) align at equator
2) all chromatid pairs have myofibril network attracted to centromere

8
Q

What 4 things happen in prophase

A

1) centriole replicates and moves towards ‘poles’ of the cell
2) develops myofibril network (proteins attach to centromere)
3) nuclear membrane breaks down
4) condensation of chromosomes

9
Q

What 1 thing happens in anaphase

A

1) myofibril network pulls chromatid pairs apart and moves a set of chromosomes to each ‘pole’

10
Q

What 4 things happen in telophase?

A

1) centriole remaining in each new prospective cell
2) nuclear membrane reforming
3) chromosomes de condense
4) breakdown of myofibril network

11
Q

What happens after mitosis

A

Cytokinesis

12
Q

What happens in animal cytokines?

A

1) the plasma membrane pulls inwards around the equator of the cell to form a cleavage furrow
2) when the cleavage furrow reaches the centre, the cell is pinched apart into two daughter cells

13
Q

What are cyclins?

A

Group of proteins that ensure that tasks are performed at the correct time and that the cell only moves onto the next stage of the cycle when it is appropriate

14
Q

What do tumour suppressor genes produce?

A

Proteins which inhibit cell devision

15
Q

mutations to tumour suppressor genes result in?

A

Uncontrolled cell devision = tumour

16
Q

What can tumours do?

A

Grow in size which can cause damage to local tissue and may spread to other parts of the body

17
Q

How can tumours form?

A

Because of random changes to the base sequences of genes

18
Q

What are carcinogens?

What time of tumour are they?

A

1) Chemicals and agents that cause cancer

2) malignant tumours

19
Q

What are oncogenes?

A

Few genes that can become cancer-causing after mutating

20
Q

In a normal cell oncogenes are involved in the control of the cell cycle and cell devision therefore mutations in then cause what?

A

Result in uncontrolled cell decision and tumour formation

21
Q

What is a primary tumour?

A

When a tumour cell has been formed it divides repeatedly to form Two, then four, then eight cells and so on

22
Q

What is metastasis?

A

The movement of cells from a primary tumour to set up secondary tumours in other parts of the body

23
Q

What else involes mitosis?

A

Growth, embryonic development, tissue repair and asexual reproduction

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