Flashcards in Chapter 4- Ecologies And Ecosystems- The Green House Effect Deck (31)
How does photosynthesis aid in how carbon can be cycled?
Photosynthesis--> atmosphere carbon dioxide is removed and fixed as organic compounds (eg sugars)
How does feeding aid in how carbon can be cycled?
Feeding--> organic carbon is moved from one trophic level to the next in a food chain
How does respiration aid in how carbon can be cycled?
Respiration --> all organisms metabolise organic compounds for energy, releasing carbon dioxide as a by-product
How does fossilisation aid in how carbon can be cycled?
Fossilisation--> in which carbon from partially decomposed dead organisms becomes trapped in sediments as coal, oil or gas
How does combustion aid in how carbon can be cycled?
During the burning of fossil fuels and biomass in oceans carbon can be trapped as limestone
Draw the carbon cycle
Explain historical records of the Mauna Loa atmospheric observatory in Hawaii
CO2 has been measured at the Mauna Loa from 1958- since has been measured at many locations, globally
What did the Mauna Loa results show?
Annual cycle in co2 concentration, which may be attributable to seasonal factors, data from 2 hemispheres is incoporqted = co2 has risen steadily in the past 30 years
What are the long term estimates from Vostok ice core in Antartica?
Shows that fluctuating cycles of CO2 conc. Over thousands of years appear to correlate with global warm age and ice age
What are co2 results showing?
That they are currently higher than anytime in the last 400,000 years
What is the greenhouse effect?
Is a natural process whereby the earths atmosphere behaves like a greenhouse to create the moderate Temperature to which life on Earth has adapted
What do I coming radiation from the sun come in as?
Short wave ultraviolet and visible radiation
What happens to some of the Suns radiation?
Some of it is reflected by the earths surface back into space as long wave infrared radiation
What happened when greenhouse gases absorb the infrared Ray's?
They re-reflect it back into earth as heat, resulting in an increase in temperature
What is enhanced greenhouse effect suggested to be linked too?
The increased gas emissions by man and changes in global temps and climatic conditions
What are the main greenhouse gases?
Water vapour, co2, methane, oxides of nitrogen
What are other factors of greenhouse gases and the reasons why
Deforestation =less trees
Industrialisation= more combustion
Increased farming/agriculture = more methane
What are the precautionary principles ?
States that when human-induced activity raises a significant threat of harm to the environment or human health, then precautionary measures should be taken even if there are no scientific consensus regarding cause and effect
Why is it hard to provide appropriate scientific evidence for enhanced global warming before consequences escalate to potentially dire levels?
Based on time frames wag beyond human life spans
Who does the onus fall into and to do what?
Those contributing to the enhanced greenhouse effect to either reduce there imput or demonstrate their actions do not cause harm
What are the arguments for the precautionary principle
•risks of inaction= severe --> increase of severe weather conditions and rising sea level
•loss of habitat= extinction of some species= loss of biodiversity
•changes in global temps my affect food production= Damon in regions
•results in economic burden
What are the against precautionary action?
•may delay economic growth in developing countries =poverty
•no guarantee human intervention will help
•carbon reduction schemes =loss in jobs
What does the C in credible signify?
Changes in Arctic conditions
What does the rR in credible signify?
Rising sea level
What does the E in credible signify?
Expansion of temperature species increasing competition with nature species (eg red fox vs artic fox)
What does the D in credible signify?
Decomposition of detritus previously trapped in ice will increase has levels
What does the I in credible signify?
Increased spread of pest species and pathogens
What does the B in credible signify?
Behavioural changes in native species (hibernation patterned, immigration of birds)
What does the L in credible signify?
Loss of habitat (so early spring rain)