Chapter 4- Ecologies And Ecosystems- The Green House Effect Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4- Ecologies And Ecosystems- The Green House Effect Deck (31)
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1
Q
How does photosynthesis aid in how carbon can be cycled?
A
Photosynthesis--> atmosphere carbon dioxide is removed and fixed as organic compounds (eg sugars)
2
Q
How does feeding aid in how carbon can be cycled?
A
Feeding--> organic carbon is moved from one trophic level to the next in a food chain
3
Q
How does respiration aid in how carbon can be cycled?
A
Respiration --> all organisms metabolise organic compounds for energy, releasing carbon dioxide as a by-product
4
Q
How does fossilisation aid in how carbon can be cycled?
A
Fossilisation--> in which carbon from partially decomposed dead organisms becomes trapped in sediments as coal, oil or gas
5
Q
How does combustion aid in how carbon can be cycled?
A
During the burning of fossil fuels and biomass in oceans carbon can be trapped as limestone
6
Q
Draw the carbon cycle
A
Do it
7
Q
Explain historical records of the Mauna Loa atmospheric observatory in Hawaii
A
CO2 has been measured at the Mauna Loa from 1958- since has been measured at many locations, globally
8
Q
What did the Mauna Loa results show?
A
Annual cycle in co2 concentration, which may be attributable to seasonal factors, data from 2 hemispheres is incoporqted = co2 has risen steadily in the past 30 years
9
Q
What are the long term estimates from Vostok ice core in Antartica?
A
Shows that fluctuating cycles of CO2 conc. Over thousands of years appear to correlate with global warm age and ice age
10
Q
What are co2 results showing?
A
That they are currently higher than anytime in the last 400,000 years
11
Q
What is the greenhouse effect?
A
Is a natural process whereby the earths atmosphere behaves like a greenhouse to create the moderate Temperature to which life on Earth has adapted
12
Q
What do I coming radiation from the sun come in as?
A
Short wave ultraviolet and visible radiation
13
Q
What happens to some of the Suns radiation?
A
Some of it is reflected by the earths surface back into space as long wave infrared radiation
14
Q
What happened when greenhouse gases absorb the infrared Ray's?
A
They re-reflect it back into earth as heat, resulting in an increase in temperature
15
Q
What is enhanced greenhouse effect suggested to be linked too?
A
The increased gas emissions by man and changes in global temps and climatic conditions
16
Q
What are the main greenhouse gases?
A
Water vapour, co2, methane, oxides of nitrogen
17
Q
What are other factors of greenhouse gases and the reasons why
A
Deforestation =less trees
Industrialisation= more combustion
Increased farming/agriculture = more methane
18
Q
What are the precautionary principles ?
A
States that when human-induced activity raises a significant threat of harm to the environment or human health, then precautionary measures should be taken even if there are no scientific consensus regarding cause and effect
19
Q
Why is it hard to provide appropriate scientific evidence for enhanced global warming before consequences escalate to potentially dire levels?
A
Based on time frames wag beyond human life spans
20
Q
Who does the onus fall into and to do what?
A
Those contributing to the enhanced greenhouse effect to either reduce there imput or demonstrate their actions do not cause harm
21
Q
What are the arguments for the precautionary principle
A
•risks of inaction= severe --> increase of severe weather conditions and rising sea level
•loss of habitat= extinction of some species= loss of biodiversity
•changes in global temps my affect food production= Damon in regions
•results in economic burden
22
Q
What are the against precautionary action?
A
•may delay economic growth in developing countries =poverty
•no guarantee human intervention will help
•carbon reduction schemes =loss in jobs
23
Q
What does the C in credible signify?
A
Changes in Arctic conditions
24
Q
What does the rR in credible signify?
A
Rising sea level
25
Q
What does the E in credible signify?
A
Expansion of temperature species increasing competition with nature species (eg red fox vs artic fox)
26
Q
What does the D in credible signify?
A
Decomposition of detritus previously trapped in ice will increase has levels
27
Q
What does the I in credible signify?
A
Increased spread of pest species and pathogens
28
Q
What does the B in credible signify?
A
Behavioural changes in native species (hibernation patterned, immigration of birds)
29
Q
What does the L in credible signify?
A
Loss of habitat (so early spring rain)
30
Q
What does the Ither E in credible signify?
A
Extinction and resultant loss of biodiversity as food chains are disrupted
31
Q
What are the 4 main 'pools' of carbon in the environment
A
Atmosphere, biosphere, sediments, ocean

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