Chapter 4- Ecologies And Ecosystems- The Green House Effect Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4- Ecologies And Ecosystems- The Green House Effect Deck (31)
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1
Q

How does photosynthesis aid in how carbon can be cycled?

A

Photosynthesis–> atmosphere carbon dioxide is removed and fixed as organic compounds (eg sugars)

2
Q

How does feeding aid in how carbon can be cycled?

A

Feeding–> organic carbon is moved from one trophic level to the next in a food chain

3
Q

How does respiration aid in how carbon can be cycled?

A

Respiration –> all organisms metabolise organic compounds for energy, releasing carbon dioxide as a by-product

4
Q

How does fossilisation aid in how carbon can be cycled?

A

Fossilisation–> in which carbon from partially decomposed dead organisms becomes trapped in sediments as coal, oil or gas

5
Q

How does combustion aid in how carbon can be cycled?

A

During the burning of fossil fuels and biomass in oceans carbon can be trapped as limestone

6
Q

Draw the carbon cycle

A

Do it

7
Q

Explain historical records of the Mauna Loa atmospheric observatory in Hawaii

A

CO2 has been measured at the Mauna Loa from 1958- since has been measured at many locations, globally

8
Q

What did the Mauna Loa results show?

A

Annual cycle in co2 concentration, which may be attributable to seasonal factors, data from 2 hemispheres is incoporqted = co2 has risen steadily in the past 30 years

9
Q

What are the long term estimates from Vostok ice core in Antartica?

A

Shows that fluctuating cycles of CO2 conc. Over thousands of years appear to correlate with global warm age and ice age

10
Q

What are co2 results showing?

A

That they are currently higher than anytime in the last 400,000 years

11
Q

What is the greenhouse effect?

A

Is a natural process whereby the earths atmosphere behaves like a greenhouse to create the moderate Temperature to which life on Earth has adapted

12
Q

What do I coming radiation from the sun come in as?

A

Short wave ultraviolet and visible radiation

13
Q

What happens to some of the Suns radiation?

A

Some of it is reflected by the earths surface back into space as long wave infrared radiation

14
Q

What happened when greenhouse gases absorb the infrared Ray’s?

A

They re-reflect it back into earth as heat, resulting in an increase in temperature

15
Q

What is enhanced greenhouse effect suggested to be linked too?

A

The increased gas emissions by man and changes in global temps and climatic conditions

16
Q

What are the main greenhouse gases?

A

Water vapour, co2, methane, oxides of nitrogen

17
Q

What are other factors of greenhouse gases and the reasons why

A

Deforestation =less trees
Industrialisation= more combustion
Increased farming/agriculture = more methane

18
Q

What are the precautionary principles ?

A

States that when human-induced activity raises a significant threat of harm to the environment or human health, then precautionary measures should be taken even if there are no scientific consensus regarding cause and effect

19
Q

Why is it hard to provide appropriate scientific evidence for enhanced global warming before consequences escalate to potentially dire levels?

A

Based on time frames wag beyond human life spans

20
Q

Who does the onus fall into and to do what?

A

Those contributing to the enhanced greenhouse effect to either reduce there imput or demonstrate their actions do not cause harm

21
Q

What are the arguments for the precautionary principle

A
  • risks of inaction= severe –> increase of severe weather conditions and rising sea level
  • loss of habitat= extinction of some species= loss of biodiversity
  • changes in global temps my affect food production= Damon in regions
  • results in economic burden
22
Q

What are the against precautionary action?

A
  • may delay economic growth in developing countries =poverty
  • no guarantee human intervention will help
  • carbon reduction schemes =loss in jobs
23
Q

What does the C in credible signify?

A

Changes in Arctic conditions

24
Q

What does the rR in credible signify?

A

Rising sea level

25
Q

What does the E in credible signify?

A

Expansion of temperature species increasing competition with nature species (eg red fox vs artic fox)

26
Q

What does the D in credible signify?

A

Decomposition of detritus previously trapped in ice will increase has levels

27
Q

What does the I in credible signify?

A

Increased spread of pest species and pathogens

28
Q

What does the B in credible signify?

A

Behavioural changes in native species (hibernation patterned, immigration of birds)

29
Q

What does the L in credible signify?

A

Loss of habitat (so early spring rain)

30
Q

What does the Ither E in credible signify?

A

Extinction and resultant loss of biodiversity as food chains are disrupted

31
Q

What are the 4 main ‘pools’ of carbon in the environment

A

Atmosphere, biosphere, sediments, ocean

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