Chapter 1- Cells- Eukoryotic Cells Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1- Cells- Eukoryotic Cells Deck (19):

Draw and label eukaryotic cells

Do it bitch tits


Definition of nucleus

1)Nuclear membrane is double
2)Contains chromosomes, consisting of DNA associated with histone proteins
3)Is where DNA is replicated and transcribed to mRNA, which is exported via the nuclear pores to the cytoplasm


Definition of ribosomes

Small, free in cytoplasm associated with rER.
Synthesise proteins, releasing it to work in cytoplasm


Definition of mitochondria

1)Site of aerobic respiration which produces large quantities of ATP
2)Fat is digested here if it is being used as an energy source in the cell


Definition of Golgi apparatus?

1) Stores, modifies and packages proteins
2) proteins then carried in vesicles to the plasma membrane for secretion


Definition of lysosme

Contains and transport enzymes--> site of hydrolysis/ digestion/ breakdown of macromolecules


Definition centrioles

Associated nuclear devision (mitosis/meiosis/cytoskensis)


Definition of rough endoplasmic reticulum

1)Site of protein synthesis for secretion from the cell
2) protein synthesised is carried by vesicles, which bud off and are moved to the Golgi apparatus


Definition of smooth endoplamisc reticulum

Involed in synthesis and transport of lipids and steroids as well as metabolism of carbohydrates


What are 3 similarities between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

1) both hAve cell membranes
2) both contain ribosomes
3) both have DNA and cytoplasm


What are the 4 differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

1) DNA- p= naked (no histones) e= associated with histones
P=circular e=linear
P=found in cytoplasm E=in nucleus
2) P= no membrane bond organelles E=there is
3) P= 70S ribosomes E= 80S ribosomes
4) P= smaller (1-5nm) E= (10-100nm)


Draw and label plant cell

Do it mutha ducks


4 differences between plant and animal cells

Plant cells. Animal cell
Have plastids (chloroplast) Don't
Have cell wall (cellulose). Don't
Have large vacuole. Has temporary
Stores excess glucose Stores it as
as starch. glycogen


What are the roles of extracellular components of plants?

Cell wall in plants made from cellulose secreted from the cell:
1) provides support and mechanical strength for the cell (maintains shape)
2) prevents excessive water uptake by maintaining a stable, turgid state
3) serves as barrier against infections by pathogens


What are the roles of extracellular components in animals?

Extracellular matrix (ECM) is made from glycoproteins secreted:
1) provides support and anchorage for cells
2)segregates tissues from one another
3) regulates intercellular communication by sequestering growth factor


What cell structure do eukaryotes have? And what does it mean?

Compartmentalised cell structure
Means they are divided up by partitions into compartments- these are single or double membranes


What are the 4 advantages of being compartmentalised?

1)enzymes/substrates for a particular process can be much more concentrated
2) substances that could cause damage to the cell can be kept inside the membrane or an organelle
3) conditions such as pH can be maintained at an a ideal level in that particular compartment
4) organelles with their contents can be moved around within the cell


Definition of chloroplast

They produce glucose and a wide variety of other organic compounds by photosynthesis


Definition of vacuoles/vesicles

Some absorb food and digest them
Some expel excess water
Vesicles transport material inside the cell

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