Flashcards in Chapter 1- Cells- Eukoryotic Cells Deck (19)
Draw and label eukaryotic cells
Do it bitch tits
Definition of nucleus
1)Nuclear membrane is double
2)Contains chromosomes, consisting of DNA associated with histone proteins
3)Is where DNA is replicated and transcribed to mRNA, which is exported via the nuclear pores to the cytoplasm
Definition of ribosomes
Small, free in cytoplasm associated with rER.
Synthesise proteins, releasing it to work in cytoplasm
Definition of mitochondria
1)Site of aerobic respiration which produces large quantities of ATP
2)Fat is digested here if it is being used as an energy source in the cell
Definition of Golgi apparatus?
1) Stores, modifies and packages proteins
2) proteins then carried in vesicles to the plasma membrane for secretion
Definition of lysosme
Contains and transport enzymes--> site of hydrolysis/ digestion/ breakdown of macromolecules
Associated nuclear devision (mitosis/meiosis/cytoskensis)
Definition of rough endoplasmic reticulum
1)Site of protein synthesis for secretion from the cell
2) protein synthesised is carried by vesicles, which bud off and are moved to the Golgi apparatus
Definition of smooth endoplamisc reticulum
Involed in synthesis and transport of lipids and steroids as well as metabolism of carbohydrates
What are 3 similarities between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
1) both hAve cell membranes
2) both contain ribosomes
3) both have DNA and cytoplasm
What are the 4 differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
1) DNA- p= naked (no histones) e= associated with histones
P=found in cytoplasm E=in nucleus
2) P= no membrane bond organelles E=there is
3) P= 70S ribosomes E= 80S ribosomes
4) P= smaller (1-5nm) E= (10-100nm)
Draw and label plant cell
Do it mutha ducks
4 differences between plant and animal cells
Plant cells. Animal cell
Have plastids (chloroplast) Don't
Have cell wall (cellulose). Don't
Have large vacuole. Has temporary
Stores excess glucose Stores it as
as starch. glycogen
What are the roles of extracellular components of plants?
Cell wall in plants made from cellulose secreted from the cell:
1) provides support and mechanical strength for the cell (maintains shape)
2) prevents excessive water uptake by maintaining a stable, turgid state
3) serves as barrier against infections by pathogens
What are the roles of extracellular components in animals?
Extracellular matrix (ECM) is made from glycoproteins secreted:
1) provides support and anchorage for cells
2)segregates tissues from one another
3) regulates intercellular communication by sequestering growth factor
What cell structure do eukaryotes have? And what does it mean?
Compartmentalised cell structure
Means they are divided up by partitions into compartments- these are single or double membranes
What are the 4 advantages of being compartmentalised?
1)enzymes/substrates for a particular process can be much more concentrated
2) substances that could cause damage to the cell can be kept inside the membrane or an organelle
3) conditions such as pH can be maintained at an a ideal level in that particular compartment
4) organelles with their contents can be moved around within the cell
Definition of chloroplast
They produce glucose and a wide variety of other organic compounds by photosynthesis