Chapter 4- Ecology And Ecosystems- Communities And Eco-systems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4- Ecology And Ecosystems- Communities And Eco-systems Deck (42)
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1
Q
Define habitat
A
Environment in which species lives in
2
Q
Define population
A
Group of organisms of the same species who live in the same area at the same time
3
Q
Define community
A
Group of populations living and interacting in the same area
4
Q
Define ecosystem
A
Community and its abiotic environment
5
Q
Define ecology
A
Study of relationships between living organisms and between organisms and their environment
6
Q
Define an autotroph
A
Organism that synthesis it's organic molecules from simple inorganic substances (e.g CO2 and nitrates)
7
Q
What are autotrophs?
A
Producers
8
Q
Define a heterotroph
A
Obtains organic molecules from other organisms
9
Q
What are heterotrophs?
A
They are consumers
10
Q
Define a consumer
A
Organism which ingests other organic matter that is living or recently killed
11
Q
Define detritivore
A
Organisms that ingests non-living organic matter
12
Q
Define saprotroph
A
Organisms that lives in or eats non living organic matter, secreting digestive enzymes into it and absorbing the products of digestion
13
Q
What do food chains show?
A
Food chains show linear feeding relationships between species
14
Q
What do you arrows represent in food chains?
A
Arrows represent transfer of energy as one organism is eaten by another
15
Q
What is the first organism in a food chain sequence and what is it followed by?
A
The first organism in the sequence is the producer followed by consumer
16
Q
Draw three food chains including land pond and ocean
A
Do it Martha
17
Q
What do food web show?
A
Food web show how food chains are linked together into more complex fitting relationships within a community
18
Q
In food webs what can hold more than one trophic level
A
more than one producer and consumer occupy Multiple trophic positions
19
Q
Define trophic level
A
Trophic level refers to the position it occupies in a food chain
20
Q
What is trophic level one
A
Producer
21
Q
What is trophic level two
A
Primary consumer
22
Q
What is trophic level three
A
Secondary consumer
23
Q
What is trophic level four
A
Tertiary consumer
24
Q
Construct a food web containing up to 10 organisms
A
Fucking do it
25
Q
Why is light useful for almost all communities
A
All green plants some bacteria= photo trophic they use light as a source of energy for synthesising organic molecules
26
Q
What is light at the initial source for?
A
Almost all communities
27
Q
How does energy enter most communities
A
Energy enters most communities as light its absorbed by autotrophs e.g. plants And converted into chemical and converted into energy by photosynthesis
28
Q
After energy enters most communities as light how does energy then get past the primary consumer?
A
Energy then gets passed to the primary consumer herbivore when They eat the plant and then get past the successive consumers carnivores as they eaten in turn
29
Q
How much energy is passed from one trophic level to another and where does the rest go?
A
Only about 10% of energy is passed from one trophic level to another the rest is lost
30
Q
How much percentage of energy is lost from trophic level to trophic level
A
90%
31
Q
What can energy be lost as when moving from trophic level to trophic level
A
It can be used as heat, used up during cell respiration, be excreted in faeces or a remain unconsumed as it uneaten part of the food
32
Q
Explain the reason for the shade of the pyramids of energy
A
The pyramid is a graphical representation of the amount of energy in each trophic level in a food chain
33
Q
What unit are the pyramids shown in
A
They are expressed in units of energy per area per time
34
Q
Why will a pyramid never been inverted (2nd law of thermodynamics)(
A
Pyramids will never be inverted as energy is stored in one is always lost when transferred to the next source--> application of the second law of thermodynamics
35
Q
What should each level of the pyramid be?
A
1/10 of the level before it
36
Q
Can energy be recycled
A
No
37
Q
What is an eco system powered by?
A
A continuous influx of new energy from an external source (eg the sun)
38
Q
Nutrients are required by what? And what?
A
An organism- which recycles an ecosystem as food (living or dead)
39
Q
What do autotrophic activities of producers produce?
A
Organic material from inorganic sources, which are then fed on by consumers
40
Q
What happens when heterotrophic organisms die?
A
Inorganic nutrients returned to soil and are used by plans ----> thus energy flows through an ecosystem, while nutrients cycle with them
41
Q
What do decomposes do?
A
Recycle nutrients--> Free inorganic materials from the dead bodies and waste products of organisms, ensuring a continual supply of raw materials from the producers
42
Q
Define species
A
Group of organisms which can interbreed, and produce fertile offspring

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