Chapter 4- Ecology And Ecosystems- Communities And Eco-systems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4- Ecology And Ecosystems- Communities And Eco-systems Deck (42)
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1
Q

Define habitat

A

Environment in which species lives in

2
Q

Define population

A

Group of organisms of the same species who live in the same area at the same time

3
Q

Define community

A

Group of populations living and interacting in the same area

4
Q

Define ecosystem

A

Community and its abiotic environment

5
Q

Define ecology

A

Study of relationships between living organisms and between organisms and their environment

6
Q

Define an autotroph

A

Organism that synthesis it’s organic molecules from simple inorganic substances (e.g CO2 and nitrates)

7
Q

What are autotrophs?

A

Producers

8
Q

Define a heterotroph

A

Obtains organic molecules from other organisms

9
Q

What are heterotrophs?

A

They are consumers

10
Q

Define a consumer

A

Organism which ingests other organic matter that is living or recently killed

11
Q

Define detritivore

A

Organisms that ingests non-living organic matter

12
Q

Define saprotroph

A

Organisms that lives in or eats non living organic matter, secreting digestive enzymes into it and absorbing the products of digestion

13
Q

What do food chains show?

A

Food chains show linear feeding relationships between species

14
Q

What do you arrows represent in food chains?

A

Arrows represent transfer of energy as one organism is eaten by another

15
Q

What is the first organism in a food chain sequence and what is it followed by?

A

The first organism in the sequence is the producer followed by consumer

16
Q

Draw three food chains including land pond and ocean

A

Do it Martha

17
Q

What do food web show?

A

Food web show how food chains are linked together into more complex fitting relationships within a community

18
Q

In food webs what can hold more than one trophic level

A

more than one producer and consumer occupy Multiple trophic positions

19
Q

Define trophic level

A

Trophic level refers to the position it occupies in a food chain

20
Q

What is trophic level one

A

Producer

21
Q

What is trophic level two

A

Primary consumer

22
Q

What is trophic level three

A

Secondary consumer

23
Q

What is trophic level four

A

Tertiary consumer

24
Q

Construct a food web containing up to 10 organisms

A

Fucking do it

25
Q

Why is light useful for almost all communities

A

All green plants some bacteria= photo trophic they use light as a source of energy for synthesising organic molecules

26
Q

What is light at the initial source for?

A

Almost all communities

27
Q

How does energy enter most communities

A

Energy enters most communities as light its absorbed by autotrophs e.g. plants And converted into chemical and converted into energy by photosynthesis

28
Q

After energy enters most communities as light how does energy then get past the primary consumer?

A

Energy then gets passed to the primary consumer herbivore when They eat the plant and then get past the successive consumers carnivores as they eaten in turn

29
Q

How much energy is passed from one trophic level to another and where does the rest go?

A

Only about 10% of energy is passed from one trophic level to another the rest is lost

30
Q

How much percentage of energy is lost from trophic level to trophic level

A

90%

31
Q

What can energy be lost as when moving from trophic level to trophic level

A

It can be used as heat, used up during cell respiration, be excreted in faeces or a remain unconsumed as it uneaten part of the food

32
Q

Explain the reason for the shade of the pyramids of energy

A

The pyramid is a graphical representation of the amount of energy in each trophic level in a food chain

33
Q

What unit are the pyramids shown in

A

They are expressed in units of energy per area per time

34
Q

Why will a pyramid never been inverted (2nd law of thermodynamics)(

A

Pyramids will never be inverted as energy is stored in one is always lost when transferred to the next source–> application of the second law of thermodynamics

35
Q

What should each level of the pyramid be?

A

1/10 of the level before it

36
Q

Can energy be recycled

A

No

37
Q

What is an eco system powered by?

A

A continuous influx of new energy from an external source (eg the sun)

38
Q

Nutrients are required by what? And what?

A

An organism- which recycles an ecosystem as food (living or dead)

39
Q

What do autotrophic activities of producers produce?

A

Organic material from inorganic sources, which are then fed on by consumers

40
Q

What happens when heterotrophic organisms die?

A

Inorganic nutrients returned to soil and are used by plans —-> thus energy flows through an ecosystem, while nutrients cycle with them

41
Q

What do decomposes do?

A

Recycle nutrients–> Free inorganic materials from the dead bodies and waste products of organisms, ensuring a continual supply of raw materials from the producers

42
Q

Define species

A

Group of organisms which can interbreed, and produce fertile offspring

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