Chapter 3- Inheritance Flashcards Preview

Biology > Chapter 3- Inheritance > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 3- Inheritance Deck (33):
1

What are gametes ?

Haploid so contain one allele of each gene

2

What does the fusion of gametes result in?

In diploid zygote with two alleles of each gene that may be the same allele or different alleles

3

What are the three alleles for ABO blood groups?

I^ A
I ^ B
i

4

What is segregation?

Separation of alleles into different nuclei - the two alleles of each gene separate into different haploid daughter nuclei during meiosis

5

What can alleles be?

Dominant, recessive or co-dominant

6

What are dominant and recessive alleles?

Recessive alleles are only shown id the dominant allele is not present

7

What is a co-dominant allele

Where both alleles have an affect of the phenotype characteristic of the organism

8

Ex of co-dominance

Flower colour in Mirabilis Jalapa - red flower mixed with white flowers offspring have pink flower

9

Definition of genotype?

Symbolic representation of a pair of alleles possessed by an organism

10

What is a phenotype?

The set of observable characteristics resulting from the interaction of genotype

11

What does genotype I^A I^A five? What does I^B I^B give?
What does i i give?
What does I^A I^B give?

1) blood group A
2) blood group B
3) blood group O
4) blood group AB - co dominant

12

Antigen A has what type of antibodies?
What type of blood can't it have?

Antibodies b and can't have b or ab blood but can O or A blood

13

Antigen b what type of antibodies does It have?
What type of blood can't it have?

Has anti- a antibodies and can't have a or ab blood but can have b or o blood

14

WHat type of antibodies does antigen AB have?
What type of blood can't it have?

Doesn't have antigens but can have any blood type- universal recipient

15

What types of antibodies has A and B?
What type of blood can it only have?

Has both A and B antibodies and can only have O blood in it- universal donor

16

Define test cross

Testing a suspected heterozygous by crossing it with a homozygous recessive

17

What are many genetic diseases in humans caused by?

Due to recessive alleles of Autosomal genes

18

What are other causes of genetic disease?

Some genetic diseases are sex-linked and some are due to dominant or xo-dominant alleles

19

What is an example of a disease caused by recessive alleles?

Cystic fibrosis

20

What is an example of a disease caused by a dominant allele?

Hunting tons disease

21

What is an example of co-dominant allele?

Sickle-cell anaemia- HB^A and HB^S has some characteristics of sickle cell anaemia without having the disease- resistance to malaria

22

What is sex linkage?

Any genetic trait whose allele has its logs on the X chromosome

23

What is cystic fibrosis? What are its consequences?

It is a recessive allele that results in chloride channels being produced that do not function properly- causes production of abnormally thick mucus which builds up in lungs causing infections

24

What is huntingtin disease?

Dominant allele of the HTT gene- causes degenerative changes in be brain - changes to behaviour, thinking and emotions become increasingly severe - life expectancy is about 20 years after symptoms

25

What are examples of X-linked recessive conditions?

Colour blindness and haemophilia

26

Where is the gene lock found for colour blindness / haemophilia ? Why does that mean men can't carry it?

On the non-homologous region of the X chromosome (not present on Y) - as males only have one allele of this gene (one one X chromosome ) they cannot carry it- either express it or don't have it

27

What does males have a higher frequency of? Where do makes inherit X linked recessive conditions?

Of being recessive and expressing a trait
Mothers

28

What are some causes of mutations?

Radiation and mutagenic chemicals increase the mutation rate and can cause genetic disease and cancer

29

How does radiation cause mutation?

Increases the mutation rate if it has enough energy to cause chemical changes in DNA - gamma rays , alpha Ray's etc all mutagenic

30

How do chemical substances cause mutation?

Cause chemical changes to DNA and so are mutagenic ex: and nitrosamines found in tobacco smoke

31

What are some on the consequences of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs?

People either died directly or within a few months
Health of nearly 100,000 survivors have been monitored - many developed tumours
Led to many still births and malformations

32

What are some of the consequences at Chernobyl in 1986?

Pine for forests turned ginger brown and died
Horses and cattle near the plant died of damage to thyroid gland

33

What did Mendel discover?

Discovered the principles of inheritance with experiments in which large numbers of pea plants were crossed

Decks in Biology Class (64):