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Flashcards in Chapter 3- Inheritance Deck (33)
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What are gametes ?

Haploid so contain one allele of each gene


What does the fusion of gametes result in?

In diploid zygote with two alleles of each gene that may be the same allele or different alleles


What are the three alleles for ABO blood groups?

I^ A
I ^ B


What is segregation?

Separation of alleles into different nuclei - the two alleles of each gene separate into different haploid daughter nuclei during meiosis


What can alleles be?

Dominant, recessive or co-dominant


What are dominant and recessive alleles?

Recessive alleles are only shown id the dominant allele is not present


What is a co-dominant allele

Where both alleles have an affect of the phenotype characteristic of the organism


Ex of co-dominance

Flower colour in Mirabilis Jalapa - red flower mixed with white flowers offspring have pink flower


Definition of genotype?

Symbolic representation of a pair of alleles possessed by an organism


What is a phenotype?

The set of observable characteristics resulting from the interaction of genotype


What does genotype I^A I^A five? What does I^B I^B give?
What does i i give?
What does I^A I^B give?

1) blood group A
2) blood group B
3) blood group O
4) blood group AB - co dominant


Antigen A has what type of antibodies?
What type of blood can't it have?

Antibodies b and can't have b or ab blood but can O or A blood


Antigen b what type of antibodies does It have?
What type of blood can't it have?

Has anti- a antibodies and can't have a or ab blood but can have b or o blood


WHat type of antibodies does antigen AB have?
What type of blood can't it have?

Doesn't have antigens but can have any blood type- universal recipient


What types of antibodies has A and B?
What type of blood can it only have?

Has both A and B antibodies and can only have O blood in it- universal donor


Define test cross

Testing a suspected heterozygous by crossing it with a homozygous recessive


What are many genetic diseases in humans caused by?

Due to recessive alleles of Autosomal genes


What are other causes of genetic disease?

Some genetic diseases are sex-linked and some are due to dominant or xo-dominant alleles


What is an example of a disease caused by recessive alleles?

Cystic fibrosis


What is an example of a disease caused by a dominant allele?

Hunting tons disease


What is an example of co-dominant allele?

Sickle-cell anaemia- HB^A and HB^S has some characteristics of sickle cell anaemia without having the disease- resistance to malaria


What is sex linkage?

Any genetic trait whose allele has its logs on the X chromosome


What is cystic fibrosis? What are its consequences?

It is a recessive allele that results in chloride channels being produced that do not function properly- causes production of abnormally thick mucus which builds up in lungs causing infections


What is huntingtin disease?

Dominant allele of the HTT gene- causes degenerative changes in be brain - changes to behaviour, thinking and emotions become increasingly severe - life expectancy is about 20 years after symptoms


What are examples of X-linked recessive conditions?

Colour blindness and haemophilia


Where is the gene lock found for colour blindness / haemophilia ? Why does that mean men can't carry it?

On the non-homologous region of the X chromosome (not present on Y) - as males only have one allele of this gene (one one X chromosome ) they cannot carry it- either express it or don't have it


What does males have a higher frequency of? Where do makes inherit X linked recessive conditions?

Of being recessive and expressing a trait


What are some causes of mutations?

Radiation and mutagenic chemicals increase the mutation rate and can cause genetic disease and cancer


How does radiation cause mutation?

Increases the mutation rate if it has enough energy to cause chemical changes in DNA - gamma rays , alpha Ray's etc all mutagenic


How do chemical substances cause mutation?

Cause chemical changes to DNA and so are mutagenic ex: and nitrosamines found in tobacco smoke


What are some on the consequences of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs?

People either died directly or within a few months
Health of nearly 100,000 survivors have been monitored - many developed tumours
Led to many still births and malformations


What are some of the consequences at Chernobyl in 1986?

Pine for forests turned ginger brown and died
Horses and cattle near the plant died of damage to thyroid gland


What did Mendel discover?

Discovered the principles of inheritance with experiments in which large numbers of pea plants were crossed

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