Chapter 1- Cells- cell theory Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1- Cells- cell theory Deck (39):
0

What evidence for the cell is there? (Microscope)

1) microscopes increase mans ability to visualise tiny objects
2) all living things that have been viewed under a microscope have been made up of cells and cell products

1

Outline the cell theory (6)

1) all living things are composed of cells (or cell products) may be unicellular or multicellular
2) cells are the smallest unit of life
3) cells only come from pre-existing cells
4) every living cell is surrounded by a membrane
5) cells contain genetic material which stores all of the instructions needed for the cells activity
6) cells have their own energy release system that powers all of the cells activities

2

What 2 types of cells do not conform to the standard notion of what a cell is?

1) muscles contain multiple nuclei
2) fungal hyphae consists of multiple cells that share continuous cytoplasm

3

What have experiments by Louis Pasteur and Francisco Redi shown?

1) cells removed from tissues can survive independently for a short period of time
2) nothing smaller than a cell has been found to live independently
3) cells cannot grow in sealed and sterilised conditions

4

-state that unicellular organisms carry out all the functions of life:
- what do all organisms exist in?

Either unicellular or multicellular form

5

-state that unicellular organisms carry out all the functions of life:
- what are the 7 functions of life?

Metabolism, growth, reproduction, response, homeostasis, nutrition, excretion

6

-state that unicellular organisms carry out all the functions of life:
- what is metabolism?

Chemical reactions inside the cell, including cell respiration to release energy

7

-state that unicellular organisms carry out all the functions of life:
- what is growth?

An irreversible increase in size

8

-state that unicellular organisms carry out all the functions of life:
- what is reproduction?

Involves hereditary molecules that can be passed to offspring

9

-state that unicellular organisms carry out all the functions of life:
- what is response?

To the environment is important for survival

10

-state that unicellular organisms carry out all the functions of life:
- what is homeostasis?

Maintaining a constant internal environment

11

-state that unicellular organisms carry out all the functions of life:
-what is nutrition?

Obtaining food to provide energy and the materials needed for growth

12

What is the equation for magnification?

Magnification= image X actual size

13

(-Explain the importance of the surface area to volume ration as a factor limiting cell size:)
-what does it limit?

Size of cells

14

(-Explain the importance of the surface area to volume ration as a factor limiting cell size:)
- what are functions dependant on cell volume?

Rate of heat, waste productions and rate of resource consumptions - metabolism of cell

15

(-Explain the importance of the surface area to volume ration as a factor limiting cell size:)
- where does most chemical reactions occur? And what affects the rate of these reactions?

In the interior of cells and size affects the rate

16

(-Explain the importance of the surface area to volume ration as a factor limiting cell size:)
- what does the surface of the cell do?

(Membrane) controls what materials move in and out of the cell

17

(-Explain the importance of the surface area to volume ration as a factor limiting cell size:)
- what are cells with more surface area per volume able to do?

Move more materials in and out of the cell for each volume of the cell

18

(-Explain the importance of the surface area to volume ration as a factor limiting cell size:)
A large cells needs less what?

Less surface area

19

(-Explain the importance of the surface area to volume ration as a factor limiting cell size:)
- why does a large cell need less surface area? And why does this make cells limited in size?

Less surface area needed To bring in needed materials and to rid cell of waste than small---> due to this cells are limited to as to the size they can attain and still carry out functions of life

20

(-Explain the importance of the surface area to volume ration as a factor limiting cell size:)
- therefore what do large animals have regarding cells?

Do not have large cells but MORE cells

Some cells have infoldings/outfoldings to increase surface area (ex: microvilli)

21

(State that multicellular organisms show emergent properties:)
Multi- cellular organisms are capable of completing functions that individuals cells could not undertake- why?

Due to interaction between cells producing new functions

22

(State that multicellular organisms show emergent properties:)
-in multi-cellular organisms what may cells group together to form?

Tissues

23

(State that multicellular organisms show emergent properties:)
-from the grouping of multiple of tissues what are then formed?

Organs

24

(State that multicellular organisms show emergent properties:)
-what may organs that interact form?

Organ systems capable of carrying out specific body functions

25

(State that multicellular organisms show emergent properties:)
What do organ systems carry out?

Life functions required by an organisms

26

(State that multicellular organisms show emergent properties:)
Levels of anatomical praganisation?

Atoms-->molecules-->cells-->tissues-->organs-->organ systems-->organisms

27

Explain that cells in multi-cellular organisms differentiate to carry out specialised functions by expressing some genes but not others:
-what shares identical genome? And what does each cell contain?

All cells of an individual organism and each cell contains the entire set of genetic instructions from that organism

28

Explain that cells in multi-cellular organisms differentiate to carry out specialised functions by expressing some genes but not others:
- what does the activation of different instructions (genes) within a given cell by chemical reactions do?

Differentiate from other cells like it

29

Explain that cells in multi-cellular organisms differentiate to carry out specialised functions by expressing some genes but not others:
- what is differentiation the process off?

Process during development whereby newly formed cells became more specialised and distinct from one and the other as the mature

30

Explain that cells in multi-cellular organisms differentiate to carry out specialised functions by expressing some genes but not others:
Why do cells specialise to form tissues?

1)They cells can carry out their role more efficiently
2) can develop the ideal structure, with the enzymes needed to carry out all of the chemical reactions associated with the function

31

State that stem cells retain the capacity to divide and have the ability to differentiate along different pathways:
- what are the 2 things unspecialised stem cells?

1) self-renewal: can continuously divide and replicate
2) potency: have the capacity to differentiate into specialised cell types

32

Where can stem cells be derived from?

From embryos or the placenta/umbilical cord of the mother or small amounts from adult tissues

33

What can stem cells replace?

Damaged or diseased cells with healthy functioning ones

34

How does it help skin cells? (Therapeutic use of stem cells)

Craft new skin cells to replace damaged cells in severe burn victims

35

Differentiation involves the expressionist some genes and not others in a cells genome:
Why does cell differentiation happen?

Because a different sequence of genes is expressed in different cell types

36

What it a non-therapeutic use of stem cells?

To produce large quantities of striated muscle fibres or meat for human consumption

37

Differentiation involves the expressionist some genes and not others in a cells genome:
The development of cells is done how?

Involves switching on particular genes and expressing them, but not others

38

Differentiation involves the expressionist some genes and not others in a cells genome:
When a gene is being used, what is it called?

It is being expressed

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