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Flashcards in Application - Chapter 1 Deck (17):
1

Questioning the cell theory using Atypical examples, including striated muscles, giant algae and fungal hyphae

Fungal hyphae

- cell membrane and cell wall
- in some hyphae is divided up into small cell like sectioned called septa
- each hyphae is an uninterrupted tube like structure with many nuclei spread along it

2

Questioning the cell theory using Atypical examples, including striated muscles, giant algae and fungal hyphae

Giant algae

- larger than normal algae but still single celled - still only has one nucleus

3

Investigation of functions of life in paramecium and one other named photosynthetic unicellular organism :

Describe functions of paramecium

1)Nucleus- can divide to produce extra nuclei, asexual reproduction
2) food vacuoles- contain smaller organisms it has consumed- digested and absorbed into cytoplasm
3) cell membrane- controls what chemicals enter and leave
4) contractile vacuoles- fill up with water and expel it through plasma membrane
5) metabolic reactions - take place in cytoplasm
6) beating of cilia - moves it through water

4

Investigation of functions of life in paramecium and one other named photosynthetic unicellular organism :

Explain functions of chlamydomonas

1)Nucleus: divides to produce identical nuclei- asexual- can also fuse to carry out a form of sexual reproduction
2) metabolic reaction- take place in cytoplasm
3) cell wall- freely permeable - membrane indie that controls substances coming in and out
4) contractile vacuoles- fill up with water and expel through membrane
5) chloroplast- where photosynthesis takes place
6) beating of two flagella sallow movement through water

5

Use of stem cells to treat 'stargadt's diease' and one other named condition

Explain stargadt's disease

- genetic disease
- developed in kids 6-12
- recessive mutation of gene ABCA4
- consequence- photoreceptive cells in retina degenerate - these are cells that detect light so vision becomes bad
- developed stem cells develop into retina cells- first done on mice- improved eyesight
- 2010 woman in USA with stagardts disease- injected with 50,000 retina cells - they attached to retina and remained there for a 4 month trial- were some improvements

6

Use of stem cells to treat 'stargadt's diease' and one other named condition

Explain Leukaemia

- involves production of large amounts of white blood cells
- produced in bone marrow
- to cure the cancer cells in the bone marrow producing the excessive numbers must be destroyed - chemotherapy
- however to remain healthy the patient must be able to produce white blood cells to fight diease but they are killed in chemotherapy
- so use stem cells

7

Use of stem cells to treat 'stargadt's diease' and one other named condition

Explain the insertion of stem cells in Leukaemia

1) large needle inserted into bone and fluid is removed from bone marrow
2) stem cells are extracted from this fluid and stored by freezing them- adult stem cells
3) high does of chemotherapy drugs is given to patient to kill all cancer cells in bone marrow- loses ability to produce blood cells
4) stem cells are returned to bone marrow and all is good

8

Ethics of the therapeutic use of stem cells from specially created embryos, from the umbilical cord blood of a new born baby and from an adults own tissues

Where can stem cells be derived from?

1) embryos- all cells are embryonic
2) blood from umbilical cord of baby- stem cells can be frozen
3) adult tissues such as bone marrow

9

Ethics of the therapeutic use of stem cells from specially created embryos, from the umbilical cord blood of a new born baby and from an adults own tissues

3 benefits / negatives to obtaining them

Embryonic stem cells-
Unlimited growth potential

Cord blood stem cells
Easily obtained and stored

Adult stem cells
Difficult to obtain as very few of them

10

Ethics of the therapeutic use of stem cells from specially created embryos, from the umbilical cord blood of a new born baby and from an adults own tissues

3 benefits/ negatives to growth

Embryonic stem cells
Can differentiate into any type on the body

Cord blood cells
Fully compatible with the tissues of the adult that grows from the baby so no rejection problem

Adult stem cells
Less growth potential them embryonic stem cells

11

Ethics of the therapeutic use of stem cells from specially created embryos, from the umbilical cord blood of a new born baby and from an adults own tissues

3 benefits to removal:

Embryonic stem cells
Removal of cells from embryo kills it

Cord blood stem cells
Umbilical cord is discarded whether or not cells are taken from it

Adult stem cells
Removal of stem cells does not kill the adult

12

Ethics of the therapeutic use of stem cells from specially created embryos, from the umbilical cord blood of a new born baby and from an adults own tissues

Ethical arguments

Whether or not an early stage embryo is as much a human as a baby
When does human life begin?
Unethical to create human lives solely for the purpose of obtaining stem cells

13

Structure and function of organelle within exocrine gland cells of the pancreas within palisade mesophyll:

Exocrine gland of organelles:

1) Endocrine cells secrete hormones into blood stream
2) Exocrine gland cells secrete digestive enzymes small intestine
3) enzymes are proteins so have organelles needed to synthesis proteins in large quantities

4) plasma membrane, mitochondrion, nucleus, rough ER, Golgi apparatus, vesicles, lysosomes

14

Structure and function of organelle within exocrine gland cells of the pancreas within palisade mesophyll:

Explain palisade mesophyll:

1) Function of leaf is photo synthesis

2) cell wall, plasma membrane, chrolorpast , mitchrondrian , vacuole, nucleus

15

Tissues or organs to be used in medical procedures must be bathed in a solution with the same osmolarity as they cytoplasm to prevent osmosis:

Explain

Both hypertonic and hypotonic solutions damage human cells so a solution with the same osmolarity as the cells (isotonic) water cells leave and enter the cell at the same rate so they remain healthy

Therefore during medical procedures human cells/ organs must be bathed in a isotonic solution

16

Evidence from pasteurs experiments that spontaneous generation of cells and organisms does not now occur on earth:

Use of swan necked flasks
Boiled broth in some flasks and left others
Fungi soon appeared in the unboiled ones but not the boiled ones
Broth had been in contac with air which has been suggested was needed for spontaneous generation- now proved it was not

17

Questioning the cell theory using Atypical examples, including striated muscles, giant algae and fungal hyphae

Striated muscle

- building blocks of tissue are muscle fibres
- surrounded by a membrane and are formed by division of pre-existing cells
- larger then most animal cells
- instead of having one nucleus they have many

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