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Flashcards in Chapter 7- Human Nutrition Deck (45)
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1

What are examples of some essential nutrients?

Amino acids
Unsaturated fatty acids
Minerals
Calcium
Vitamins
Water

2

Why are some nutrients essential and some non-essential

The nutrients that are non essential, another nutrient can be used for the same purpose or because they can be made in the body from another nutrient - essentials can't

3

Examples of no -essential nutrients?

Glucose
Starch
Carbohydrates

4

What is an example of conditionally essential nutrients

Vitamin K is produced by the metabolism of symbiotic bacteria in the intestine- infants don't have colonies of this bacteria so at birth they are given supplementary injections

5

What is vitamin C what does it do

Is a compound called ascorbic acid- needed for the synthesis of the collagen fibres that form
Part of the tissue in the body- most plants and animals can synthesis vitamin c in the body

6

Why in some animals do it they not produce vitamin C?

Due to mutations that led to genes no longer producing the protein necessary to make vitamin C- due to mutation in the GLO gene which codes for the production of the enzyme l-guluno- lactone oxidase

7

Examples of mammals that cannot produce Vitamin C

Fish- Ray-finned-cod, salmon, herring
Humans
Chimpanzees
Apes

8

What can be the cause of a lack of vitamin C

Scurvy

9

Why are some amino acids essential in the body?

-of the 20 amino acids only half are that essential because they cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities- other half can be made from nitrogen compounds

10

Example of essential amino acids in body

1) threonine and arginine are conditionally essential
Threonine can be synthesized if phenalanine is present
Arginine is produced by healthy living individuals

11

Example of essential fatty acids?

Omega-3
Omega-6
They cannot be synthesized in the body

12

Name 3 essential amino acids

Threonine
Arginine
Lysine
Valine

13

What does a lack of essential amino acids affect?

The production of proteins

14

What is a lack of essential amino acids that affects the production of protein called?

Protein deficiency malnutrition

15

Why may essential amino acids by lacking?

Due to overall insufficiency of protein in the diet or to an imbalance in the types of protein

16

Consequences of protein deficiency malnutrition?

Causes a lack of blood plasma proteins which results in fluid being retained in tissues - causes swelling
Child development may be mentally and physically retarded with stunted growth and development disabilities
Adults may undergo serious weight loss

17

How much minerals are needed on the diet?

Relatively small quantities

18

What are minerals

Chemical elements

19

Example of mineral deficiency

Iodine- needed by thyroid gland to produced thyroxin - this stimulates the metabolic rate- lack of iodine squads IDD (iodine deficiency disorder)
- pregnant lady may be born with brain damage, mental development and intelligence are impaired

20

What are vitamins

Chemically diverse carbon compounds that cannot be synthesises by the body

21

What do vitamins do?

Serve a variety of roles such as co factors for enzymes, anti-oxidants and hormones

22

What is malnutrition caused by?

Is the outcome of a bad diet- could be a deficiency , imbalance or exceeds of nutrients in the diet

23

What is starvation ?

Is a consequence of a diet lacking in adequate protein and carbohydrates

24

Where is appetite controlled from?

Hypothalamus of the brain- appetite control centre

25

What hormones do the appetite control centre receive to reduce the desire to eat?

Small intestine secrets PYY3-36 when it contains food
Pancreas secreted insulin when blood glucose level is high
Adipose tissues secrets leptin when amounts of fat stored increases

26

What are the two main consequences of obesity?

Hypertension and type II diabetes

27

What is diabetes mellitus?

Sugar is present in the urine

Can be developed 2 Ways-
1) auto immune destruction of insulin secreting cells
2) decreased responsiveness of body cells to insulin due to 'burn out'

28

Type II diabetes have increased blood concentrations of fatty acids - linked to following risk factor ?

Diets rich in fat and low in fibre
Obesity due to overeating and lack of excercise
Genetic factors which affect fat metabolism

29

What are the symptoms of diabetes II

Elevated levels of blood glucose
Glucose in urine
Dehydration and thirst resulting from excretion of large volumes of urine

30

What are the results of diabetes if not treated?

Atherosclerosis (narrowing of arteries by fatty deposits)
Hypertension (raised blood pressure)
Coronary heart disease

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