Chapter 3- Genetics- Meosis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3- Genetics- Meosis Deck (32)
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0
Q
(State that meiosis is a reduction division of diploid nucleus to form haploid nuclei:)
-what is the process of meiosis?
A
Process by which sex cells (gametes) are made in the reproductive organ
1
Q
(State that meiosis is a reduction division of diploid nucleus to form haploid nuclei:)
Most sexually reproducing animals are diploid which means?
A
They have to copies of every 2 copies of every chromosome (one maternal origin one paternal)
2
Q
(State that meiosis is a reduction division of diploid nucleus to form haploid nuclei:)
In order to reproduce organisms need gametes that are?
A
Haploid (have only one copy of each chromosome)
3
Q
(State that meiosis is a reduction division of diploid nucleus to form haploid nuclei:
The fertilisation of 2 gametes results in?
A
Formation of a diploid zygote
4
Q
(State that meiosis is a reduction division of diploid nucleus to form haploid nuclei:)
Meosis consists of 2 cell divisions what are they?
A
1st division= reduction devision of the diploid nucleus to form haploid nucleus
2nd division= separates sister chromatids
5
Q
What do homologous chromatids share?
A
The same structural feature. (Eg size, pattern)
The same genes at the same loci positions (genes= some alleles might be different)
6
Q
How many cells does Meosis produce?
A
4
7
Q
What is the 1st stage of Meosis?
A
'S' phase of interphase- DNA replication
8
Q
Why does DNA replication occur in the first stage of Meosis?
A
To make a copy of its genetic information during interphase--> results in each chromatid having an identical copy or sister chromatid attach to it at the centromere
9
Q
Draw the crossing over diagram in Meosis
A
Fucking do it you have a week.
10
Q
What 4 things happens in prophase 1?
A
1) chromosomes become visible as DNA compacts (super coiling)
2) homologous chromosomes are attracted to each other and pair up--> one from father, one from mother
3) crossing over occurs between non-sister chromatids
4) spindle fibres made from microtubles form
11
Q
What 2 things happens in metaphase 1
A
1) bivalents (another name for homologous pairs of chromosomes) line up across cell equator
2) nuclear membrane disintegrates
12
Q
What 1 thing happens in anaphase 1?
A
1) spindle fibres from the poles attach to chromosomes and pull them to opposite poles of the cell
13
Q
What 2 things happen in telophase 1?
A
1) spindles and spindle fibres disintegrate
2) usually the chromosomes uncool and new nuclear membrane forms
14
Q
What happens at the end of Meosis 1?
A
Cytokines
15
Q
What happens in cytokines 1?
A
Cell split into 2 separate cells
Cells=haploid because only contain 1 chromosome of each pair
Now Meosis 2 can take place in order to separate sister chromatids
16
Q
What 2 things happens in prophase 2?
A
1) DNA condenses into visible chromosomes again
2) new meiotic spindle fibres are produced
17
Q
What 3 things happen in metaphase 2?
A
1) nuclear membrane disintegrates
2) individual chromosomes line up along the equator of each cell, in random orientation
3) spindle fibres from opposite poles attach to each of the sister chromatids at the centromere
18
Q
What 4 things happen in anaphase 2?
A
1) centromeres of each chromosomes splits, releasing each sister chromatid
2) spindle fibres pull individual chromatids to opposite ends of cell
3) because of the Radom orientation- chromatids coul be pulled towards either of the newly forming daughter cells
4) 2^23 possibilities
19
Q
What 2 things happen in telophase 2?
A
1) chromosomes unwind their strands of DNA
2) nuclear envelopes form around each of the 4 haploid cells preparing them for cytokines
20
Q
Definition of non-disjunction
A
Chromosomes failing to separate properly resulting in extra gametes 1 or 1 missing (aneuploidy)
21
Q
How may non-disjunction occur? And how does it affect daughter cells?
A
-failure of homologous to separate during anaphase 1 resulting in 4 Affected daughter cells
- failure of sister chromatids to separate during anaphase 2 affecting 2 daughter cells
22
Q
3 copies of chromosome 21 (trisomy 21) means?
A
Makes Down syndrome
23
Q
Give an example of how parents can result in a child having 3 chromosomes 21
A
One parents gametes has 2 copies of chromosome 21 as a result of non-disjunction the other parent has 1 copy of chromosome 21 and when fusedd together zygote has 3 copies of chromosome 21
24
Q
In karyotyping how are chromosomes arranged?
A
Arranged into homologous pairs and displayed according to their structural characteristics and go down in size
25
Q
How are chromosomes able to be seen in karyotyping?
A
Involves harvesting cells (usually from foetus or white blood cells of adult) and chemically inducing cell division but stopping it dying meiosis when chromosomes are condensed and visible they are then stained and photographed before arranging them into structure
26
Q
What is karyotyping tend to be used for?
A
Determine sex of child
Test for chromosomal abnormalities
27
Q
What are the 2 ways of getting chromosomes with karyotyping?
A
Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling
28
Q
What happens during Amniocentesis?
A
Needle inserted through abdominal wall into amniotic cavity in the uterus and a sample of amniotic fluid containing foetal cells is taking
29
Q
How far in the pregnancy can amniocentesis happen? And what is the chance of miscarriage?
A
16th week
~0.5%
30
Q
What happens in chorionic villus sampling?
A
Tube is inserted through the cervix and a tiny sample of chorionic villi (contains foetal cells) from placenta is taken
31
Q
What chromosomes show a male/female?
What shows if it has Down syndrome?
A
Male= X Y female= X X
Down syndrome= 21sr chromosome has 3

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