Chapter 4 - Carbon Cycle Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Carbon Cycle Deck (25)
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1
Q
What is the current carbon dioxide concentration of the atmosphere at the moment?
A
0.039%
2
Q
And aquatic habitats How is carbon dioxide present?
A
As a dissolved gas and hydrogen carbonate ions
3
Q
What is absorbed by aquatic plants and other autotrophs that live in water?
A
Dissolved co2 and hydrogen carbonate ions
4
Q
How does carbon dioxide diffuse from the atmosphere?
A
Because autotrophs use carbon dioxide in the production of carbon compounds by photosynthesis
5
Q
What is produced by respiration?
A
Carbon dioxide and diffuses out of organisms into water or the atmosphere
6
Q
What is co2 a waste product of?
A
Aerobic cell respiration
7
Q
Co2 is a waste product of aerobic cell respiration- it is produced in all cels that carry out this respiration - what are the 3 groups that do it?
A
1) non-photosynthetic cells in producers for example root cells in plants
2) animal cells
3) saprotrophs such as fungi that decompose dead organic matter
8
Q
What is methane produced from?
A
Methane is produced from organic matter in anaerobic conditions By methanogenic archaens and some diffuse into the atmosphere
9
Q
What are the 3 groups of anaerobic prokararyotes that have methane as a waste product?
A
1) bacteria that convert organic matter
2) bacteria that use the organic acids and alcohol
3) archaens that produce methane from 2 different chemical reactions
10
Q
Where do archaea a that are methanogenic carry out methanogenesis ? (4)
A
1) mud along shores
2) swamps, wetlands etc
3) guts of termites
4) landfill sites where organic matter is in wastes that have been buried
11
Q
What is methane oxidised to?
A
Carbon dioxide and water in the atmosphere
12
Q
Why are atmopheric conditions not high in methane?
A
Molecules of methane released into the atmosphere only last there on average for 12 years
13
Q
Why does peat form?
A
When organic matter is not fully decomposed because of anaerobic conditions in waterlogged soils
14
Q
Why is organic matter sometimes not fully deoxmposed
A
In some environments water is unable to drain out of soils so they become water logged and anaerobic (saprotrophs thrive in aerobic conditions) - so cannot thrive and acidic conditions tend to develop
15
Q
Carbon and some compounds of carbon are chemically very stable and can remain unchanged in rocks for hundreds of years - where are they kept?
A
There are large deposits - result of incomplete decomposition of organic matter and its burial in sediments that become rock
16
Q
How is coal formed?
A
When deposits of peat are buried under other sediments- pears are compressed and heated, gradually turning to coal
17
Q
How is oil and natural gas formed?
A
In the mud at the bottom of seas and lakes - conditions are usually anaerobic and so decomposition is often incomplete - as more mud and other sediments are deposited all becomes compressed and heated- chemical changes occur, which produces complex mixtures of liquid carbon compounds or gases
18
Q
What is a way of carbon dioxide being produced?
A
By the combustion of biomass and fossilised organic matter
19
Q
What is combustion
A
Organic matter is heated to its ignition temperature in the presence of oxygen = combustion
20
Q
What are the products of complete combustion?
A
Carbon dioxide and water
21
Q
What are the three forms of fossilised organic matter?
A
Coal, oil and natural gases - all burned as fuels
22
Q
What type of animals can become fossilised and why?
A
Reef-building corals and molluscs have hard parts that are composed of calcium carbonate and can become fossilised in limestone
23
Q
How much limestone is all sedimentary rocks and how much carbon is locked up in. It?
A
10%
12%
24
Q
What does the mAuna loa observatory do
A
Produces large amounts of data which can be used for analysis
25
Q
What can autotrophs concert carbon dioxide into?
A
Carbohydrates another carbon compounds

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