Flashcards in Chapter 4-species, Communites And Ecosystem Deck (31)
What is interbreeding?
Interbreeding is when two members of the same species mate and produce an offspring
What is crossbreeding?
Crossbreeding is the members of different species breed together
What are the offspring produced by crossbreeding usually?
What is a population?
Population is a group of organisms of the same species live in the same area at the same time
What happens if two populations of the species never interbreed?
They may gradually develop differences in the characters however even if they are recognisable differences they consider to be the same species and they cannot interbreed and produce fertile ofsspring
What are the two methods of nutrition?
Autotrophic and heterotrophic
What is autotrophic?
Autotrophic means self-feeding which is basically some organs make their own carbon compounds from carbon dioxide and other simple substances
What is heterotrophic?
Heterotrophic means feeding on others - basically some organisms sometime in the carbon compounds from other organisms
What are consumers?
Consumers are heterotrophs that feed on living organisms by ingestion
Consume is ingest their food what does this mean?
This means that they take in undigested material from other organisms
What are detritivores?
Detritivores I heterotrophs that obtain organic nutrients from detritus by internal digestion
What are 3 examples of what detritivores/ saprotrophs eat?
1) Dead leaves and other parts of plants
2)feathers, hairs and Other dead parts of animals bodies
3) feces from animals
What happens when detritivores ingest dead organic matter?
Digest it internally and They absorb the products of digestion
What a saprotrophs?
Saprotrophs are heterotrophs that obtain organic nutrients from dead organic matter by external digestion
How do saprotrophs digest?
They secrete digestive enzymes into the dead organic matter and digest it externally
What is another word for saprotrophs and why are they called this?
Decomposes - as they break down carbon compounds in dead organic matter and release elements such as nitrogen into the ecosystem
What are communities?
A community is formed by populations of different species living together and interacting with each other
What all species dependent on?
All species are dependent on relationships with other species for the long-term survival
The fact that all species are dependent on relationships other species long-term survival means what?
This means a population of one species can never live in isolation - groups of populations live together. a group of populations living together in an area and interacted with each other is a community
How does the community form an ecosystem?
A community forms an ecosystem by interactions with the abiotic environment
Why is a community dependent on a abiotic environment?
Because organisms cannot live in isolation, they depend on the nonliving surroundings of air, water soil and rock these are known as the abiotic environment
What is in example of the Abiotic environment having power over organisms?
For example the way in action on a rocky shore create a very specialised habitat and only organisms adapted to it can survive. - on cliffs the rock type determines whether there are ledges on which birds can beat
What is the example of an organism have an affect on the abiotic environment?
An example is sand dunes- they develop along the coast where sand is blow up the shore and specialised plants grow in the loose wind-blown sand- the roots of the plan stabilise the sand and their leaves break the wind and encourage more sand to be deposited
Where'd autotroph's heterotrophs obtain inorganic nutrients from?
The abiotic environment
What are the supply of chemical element that living organisms need?
1)Carbon hydrogen and oxygen and Is needed to make carbohydrates, lipids another carbon compounds in which life is based
2) nitrogen and phosphorus see also needed to make these compounds
3) are others but not essential
How's the supply of inorganic nutrients maintained?
By the nutrient cycle
What are the three requirements for sustainability and ecosystems?
Nutrient availability, detoxification of waste products, energy availability
What is in example of nutrients being recycled indefinitely?
The waste products of one species are usually exploited as a resource by another species for example; ammonium ions released by decomposes are absorbed and used for energy source by bacteria in the soil
What cannot be recycled?