Chapter 3- Genetics- Theoretical Genetics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3- Genetics- Theoretical Genetics Deck (61)
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Define genotype

Symbolic representation of a pair of alleles possessed by an organism
eg: Bb GG tt

1

Define phenotype

Characteristics of traits of an organisms
Eg: five fingers, colour blindness and type O blood

2

Define dominant allele

Always expressed when its present it cannot be masked by a normal allele

3

Define recessive allele

Can be masked by another allele- only expressed when 2 copies are present

4

Define co dominant allele

Pairs of alleles that both have affect on the phenotype when present on a heterozygous

5

Define locus

Particular position on homologous chromosomes of a gene. Each gene is found on a specific pair of chromosomes

6

Define homozygous

Having 2 identical alleles of a gene
Eg: AA

7

Define heterozygous

Having 2 different alleles of a gene
Eg: Aa

8

Define carrier

An individual that has one copy of a recessive allele that causes a genetic disease in individuals that are homozygous for this alleles

9

Define test cross

Testing a suspected heterozygous by crosses it with a homozygous recessive

10

Do a diagram of a punnet grid

Martha.

11

What is an example of genes that have more that 2 alleles?

ABO blood group system in humans

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How does the ABO work as 3 alleles?

Share co-dominance (can be expressed equally in phenotype) and share incomplete dominance (neither fully expressed phenotype=blending)

13

What do ABO blood types demonstrate ?

A dominance order (allele A > allele B > allele C)

14

What are the four possible phenotype types for ABO blood groups?

A, B, AB and O

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How to ABO create these 4 blood types?

There are 3 alleles of the gene and these alleles can produce 6 different genotypes

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What is the gene for ABO blood type represented as?

Letter I

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What is the allele for type A blood group?

I^A

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What is the allele for type B blood group?

I ^ B

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What is the allele for type O

ii

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Crossing over of the ABO gives how many possibilities?

6

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What does I^A I^A or I^A i give?

Gives phenotype blood group A

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What does I^B I^B or I^B i give?

Blood group B

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What does I^A I^B give?

Type AB

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What does ii give in blood groups?

Blood group O

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Antigen A has what type of antibodies?
And what type of blood can't it have/have?

Anti-B antibodies and can't have B or AB blood but can have O or A blood

26

Antigen B what type of antibodies does it have? And what type of blood can it have/can't have

Has anti-A antibodies and can't have A or AB blood but can have B or O blood

27

What type of antibodies does antigen AB have? And type of blood can it have/can't have

Doesn't have any antibodies but can have any blood type- it is the universal recipient

28

What types of antibodies has A and B?and what types of blood can it only have?

Has both A and B antibodies and can only have O blood- is the universal donor

29

How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have?

23

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