Flashcards in Chapter 4- Enery Flow Deck (18):
How can living organisms harvest this energy?
What are the three groups of autotrophic carry out photosynthesis? And what are these known as?
2) eukaryotic algae
What are several groups of heterotrophs in ecosystems?
Consumers, saprotrophs , detritivores
How is light energy converted to chemical energy?
In carbon compounds by photosynthesis
How is chemical energy and carbon compounds flow of the food chain?
By means of feeding
What are the stages of the food chain?
Producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumer
How is energy released by respiration using living organisms?
By being converted to heat
What can heat not be converted to?
To other forms of energy
What are the four energy conversion is that organisms can do?
1) light energy to chemical energy in photosynthesis
2) Chemical energy to kinetic energy in muscle contraction
3)Chemical energy to electrical energy in nerve cells
4) Chemical energy to heat energy and heat generating adipose tissue
Where is heat lost from?
What energy losses between trophic level restrict?
The length of food chains and the biomass of higher trophic levels
What is biomass?
It is a total mass of an group of organisms
What does biomass consist of?
It consists of the cells and tissues of those organisms, including the carbohydrate another carbon compounds they contain. Because carbon compounds have chemical energy, biomass has energy.
What trend is always found when the results are calculated per square metre of ecosystem of the different trophic levels?
The energy added to biomass by each successive trophic level is less
What are three reasons for the loss of energy between trophic levels?
1) most of the energy in food that is digested by the organisms is released by them in respiration for use in cell activities -It is therefore lost as heat
2) not all of the organism of the lower tropic level is consumed for example animals to do not eat bones
3) not all parts of the organism are digested as some material is indigestible and is removed by feces
What is the % of energy passed down the trophic levels?
Why does biomass also diminish along the food chain?
Loss of carbon dioxide and water from respiration and loss from the food chain of uneaten or undigested parts of an organism