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Flashcards in Chapter 4- Enery Flow Deck (18)
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How can living organisms harvest this energy?

By photosynthesis


What are the three groups of autotrophic carry out photosynthesis? And what are these known as?

2) eukaryotic algae
3) cyanobacteria



What are several groups of heterotrophs in ecosystems?

Consumers, saprotrophs , detritivores


How is light energy converted to chemical energy?

In carbon compounds by photosynthesis


How is chemical energy and carbon compounds flow of the food chain?

By means of feeding


What are the stages of the food chain?

Producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumer


How is energy released by respiration using living organisms?

By being converted to heat


What can heat not be converted to?

To other forms of energy


What are the four energy conversion is that organisms can do?

1) light energy to chemical energy in photosynthesis
2) Chemical energy to kinetic energy in muscle contraction
3)Chemical energy to electrical energy in nerve cells
4) Chemical energy to heat energy and heat generating adipose tissue


Where is heat lost from?



What energy losses between trophic level restrict?

The length of food chains and the biomass of higher trophic levels


What is biomass?

It is a total mass of an group of organisms


What does biomass consist of?

It consists of the cells and tissues of those organisms, including the carbohydrate another carbon compounds they contain. Because carbon compounds have chemical energy, biomass has energy.


What trend is always found when the results are calculated per square metre of ecosystem of the different trophic levels?

The energy added to biomass by each successive trophic level is less


What are three reasons for the loss of energy between trophic levels?

1) most of the energy in food that is digested by the organisms is released by them in respiration for use in cell activities -It is therefore lost as heat
2) not all of the organism of the lower tropic level is consumed for example animals to do not eat bones
3) not all parts of the organism are digested as some material is indigestible and is removed by feces


What is the % of energy passed down the trophic levels?



Why does biomass also diminish along the food chain?

Loss of carbon dioxide and water from respiration and loss from the food chain of uneaten or undigested parts of an organism


What do most ecosystems rely on?

On a supply of energy from sunlight

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