Chapter 2-biochemistry- Carbohydrates, Lipids and Protein Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2-biochemistry- Carbohydrates, Lipids and Protein Deck (51):
0

What do organic compounds contain?

Carbon

1

What are the exceptions of carbon which aren't in organic compounds?

Hydrogen carbonates (HCO3-), carbonates (CO3^2-) and oxides of carbon (CO,CO2)

2

What are inorganic compounds made of?

All other compounds

3

Carbohydrates- what are they?

Are organic compounds consisting of one or more simple sugars that as monomers follow the general formula (CH2O)

4

Carbohydrates- Draw the example glucose and ribose

Glucose- C6H12O6
Ribose-C5H10O5

5

Carbohydrates- what is monosaccharide?

Any class of sugars (e.g glucose) that cannot be hydrated to give a simpler sugar

6

Carbohydrates- give 3 examples of monosaccharides?

Glucose, galactose, fructose

7

Carbohydrates- what does disaccharide mean?

Any class of sugars whose molecules contain a 2 monosaccharide residues.

8

Carbohydrates- give example of disaccharide

Lactose, maltose, sucrose

9

Carbohydrates- what is polysaccharide?

A carbohydrate whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecule bonded together

10

Carbohydrates- give examples of polysaccharides

Cellulose, glycogen and starch

11

Carbohydrates- what is the function of glucose in animals?

Source of energy which can be broken down to form ATP via cellular respiration

12

Carbohydrates- what is the function of lactose in animals?

A sugar found in the milk of mammals, provides energy for sucking infants

13

Carbohydrates- what is the function of glycogen in animals?

Used by animals for short term energy storage (between meals) in the liver

14

Carbohydrates- what is the function of fructose in plants?

Found in honey and onions, very sweet and good source of energy

15

Carbohydrates- what is the function of sucrose?

Used primarily as a transportable energy form (e.g sugar beets and sugar canes)

16

Carbohydrates- what is the function of cellulose?

Used by plant cells as a strengthening component of the cell wall

17

Carbohydrates- when does condensation (dehydration) reactions occur?

When molecules are covalently joined together and water is formed as a by- product

18

In carbohydrates what is the bond that is formed via condensation reactions called?

Glycoside linkage

19

What is a condensation reaction?

Is hydrolysis re reaction which requires a water molecule to break a covalent bond between 2 sub units

20

Carbohydrates- When a single monomer joins what is it called?

Disaccharide

21

Carbohydrates- when a sugar contains multiple subunits (more than 10) what are they called?

Polysaccharide

22

Draw condensation reaction matey

Do it Martha.

23

Lipids- what are they?

Group of organic molecules that are insoluble in water but soluble in non- polar solvents

24

What are 3 examples of lipids?

Triglycerides (fats and oils), phospholipids, steroids

25

Lipids- what does saturated mean?

No double bond

26

What does unsaturated mean?

Double bond

27

Draw the general structure of a lipid, a saturated lipid and a unsaturated lipid

Do it Martha.

28

Lipids- what does condensation reaction occur between?

3 hydroxyl groups of glycerol and the carboxyl groups of 3 fatty acids.

29

Lipids- what does the condensation reaction form?

Forms a triglyceride bond ( and 3 molecules of water)

30

Lipids- what is the kind of linkage between the glycerol And the fatty acids?

Ester linkage

31

Lipids- when one of the fatty acids is replaced by a phosphate group what is formed?

Phospholipid

32

Lipids-What will hydrolysis reactions do in the presence of water?

Break these molecules down to their subunits

33

Lipids- glycerol + fatty acids = ?

Triglyceride

34

Draw the formation of triglyceride

Do it

35

Functions of lipids- SHIPS what does it stand for?

S- structure
H- hormonal signalling
I- insulation
P- protections
S- storage of energy

36

Lipids- what is a main component of lipids cell membrane?

Phospholipid biolayer are main component of cell membrane

37

Lipids- what is hormonal signalling involved in and what lipid is involved in it?

Steroids are involved in hormonal signalling (e.g progesterone, testosterone, oestrogen)

38

Lipids- what can serve as insulation in animals?

Fats in animals can serve as heat insulators while sphingolipids in the myelin sheath (of Neurones) can serve as electrical insulators

39

Lipids- what is protection and what is an example of protection?

Triglycerides may form a tissue later around many key internal organs and provide protection against physical injury

40

Lipids- what is storage of energy?

Triglycerides can be used as long term energy storage source

41

What are the similarities of carbohydrates and lipids in energy storage?

-complex carbohydrates (e.g polysaccharide) and lipids both contain a lot of chemical energy that can be used for energy storage.
-complex carbohydrates and lipids are both insoluble in water- not easily transported
-carbohydrates and lipids both burn cleaner than proteins (do not yield nitrogen wastage)

42

What are the differences in carbohydrates and lipids in energy storage?
-lipid molecules contain more energy per gram than carbohydrates
-carbohydrates are more readily digested than lipids and release there energy quicker
-monosaccharides and disaccharides are water soluble and easier to transport to and from sites than lipids
-animals tend to use carbohydrates for short term energy storage while lipids are used for more long-term energy storage.
-carbohydrates Are stored as glycogen in animals while lipids are stored as fats
-carbohydrates stored as cellulose and lipids as proteins
-lipids have less effect on osmotic pressure which a cell than complete carbohydrate.

-lipid molecules contain more energy per gram than carbohydrates
-carbohydrates are more readily digested than lipids and release there energy quicker
-monosaccharides and disaccharides are water soluble and easier to transport to and from sites than lipids
-animals tend to use carbohydrates for short term energy storage while lipids are used for more long-term energy storage.
-carbohydrates Are stored as glycogen in animals while lipids are stored as fats
-carbohydrates stored as cellulose and lipids as proteins
-lipids have less effect on osmotic pressure which a cell than complete carbohydrate.

43

What are proteins?

Large, organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in linear chain

44

How is a protein defined?

Sequence of amino acids is defined by a gene and encodes in the genetic code

45

Draw the generalised structure of an amino acid

Do it do it

46

Protein- where does condensation reaction occur?

Between the amino group (NH2) of one amino acid and the carboxylic acid group (COOH) of another amino acid

47

Proteins- what does condensation reaction form?

A dipeptide (plus a molecule of water) that is held together by a peptide bond

48

Protein- when multiple amino acids join what can be formed?

A polypeptide chain

49

Protein- in the presence of water what can happen to polypeptides and by what reaction?

Polypeptide can be broken down into individual amino acids via hydrolysis reaction

50

Draw the formation of a dipeptide

Do it.

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