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jeremy harmon > DNA > Flashcards

Flashcards in DNA Deck (41):
1

Chromosome

A cell structure that contains genetic information along strands of DNA

2

DNA fingerprint

Pattern of DNA fragments obtained by examining a persons unique sequence of DNA base pairs

3

Electrophoresis

A method of separating molecules

4

Gene

Segment of DNA in a chromosome that contains information used to produce a protein or RNA molecule

5

Allele

An alternate form of a gene

6

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

A method used to rapidly make multiple copies of a specific segment of DNA

7

Restriction enzyme

A molecule that cuts a DNA molecule at a specific base sequence

8

Short Tandem Repeat (STR)

Short number of tandem repeats (2-5 base pairs) of short DNA sequences with varying numbers of repeats found among individuals

9

Tandem

Next to each other

10

VNTR

Variable number of tandem repeats (9-80 base pairs) of a short DNA sequence with varying numbers of repeats among individuals

11

DNA extraction

Process of removing DNA from a cell

12

Homologous chromosomes

Pair of chromosomes in which one chromosome was inherited from the male parent and the other was inherited by the female parent

13

Nucleotide

Subunit of DNA and other nucleic acids

14

True or false? Correct the statement if it's false

There are 35 chromosomes in each human cell nucleus.

False 46 chromosomes

15

True or false? Correct the statement if it's false

Chromosomes are tightly coiled DNA.

True

16

True or false? Correct the statement if it's false

DNA determines the body characteristics of an organism

True

17

True or false? Correct the statement if it's false

DNA is extracted from red blood cells found in a blood sample.

False
There is no DNA in red blood cells

18

The DNA inside of a persons skin cell is the same as the DNA inside of their white blood cells.

True

19

True or false? Correct the statement if it's false

Identical twins have different base sequences of DNA.

False
Identical twins are the only people who have exactly the same DNA sequence.

20

Does A pair with T, C or G?

A pairs with T

21

Does C pair with A,G or T

C pairs with G

22

Does T pair with C, A or G?

T pairs with A

23

Does G pair with A, C or T

G pairs with C

24

True or false? Correct the statement if it's false

In the DNA structure, adenine (A) will only link with cytosine (C) and guanine (G) will only link with thymine (T)

False
A pairs with T
C pairs with G

25

True or false? Correct the statement if it's false

The monomer of DNA is a nucleotide.

True

26

True or false? Correct the statement if it's false

DNA's structure is 3 strands of the molecule twisted together.

False
2 strands. Known as double helix

27

True or false? Correct the statement if it's false

DNA evidence is class evidence.

False
Individual evidence

28

True or false? Correct the statement if it's false

PCR stands for polymerase chain reaction, and is the technique for making many copies of DNA in the lab.

True

29

True or false? Correct the statement if it's false

The Innocence project is an organization which tests DNA evidence from old cases and exonerates the wrongfully convicted.

True it exonerated 306 people

30

What are the three steps for creating a DNA fingerprint? (In order)

1. DNA extraction from cells
2. PCR to make more copies of the DNA.
3. Gel electrophoresis to separate the DNA in bands to create the DNA fingerprint.

31

What type of cells are usually taken from a suspect when a DNA sample is collected?

Cheek cells

32

Describe how DNA moves through the gel electrophoresis and how that information is used to analyze the DNA fingerprint?

1. The DNA moves from the negative end towards the positive end.
2. Small pieces move quicker than larger pieces.

33

What are the three parts of a nucleotide?

Phosphate, sugar and a nitrogen base

34

What is 1 difference between analyzing a gel for a match between 2 DNA samples and analyzing gel for a paternity test?

For the 2 DNA samples you look for two lanes of DNA fingerprint ending which have banding patterns that match exactly EVERY band
- for paternity test (father) you look for one band at each STR region matching exactly with one of the fathers band from each STR region

35

At one STR region a person has 5 STR repeats on the maternal chromosome and 11 STR repeats on their paternal chromosome. Write the Genotype for this person?

5,11

36

At one STR region a person has 4 STR repeats on the maternal chromosome and 8 STR repeats on their paternal chromosome. Write the Genotype for this person?

4,8

37

At one STR region a person has 3 STR repeats on the maternal chromosome and 7STR repeats on their paternal chromosome. Write the Genotype for this person?

3,7

38

How many STR regions does the FBI test?

13

39

Why doesn't the FBI test for more STRs?

If they test for less there's a chance someone will have the same DNA which leads to a wrongful conviction.

40

Heterozygous

2 DIFFERENT numbers

41

Homozygous

SAME number twice

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