Intro to forensics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Intro to forensics Deck (69):
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Analytical skills

The ability to identify a concept or problem

1

Eyewitness

A person who has seen someone or something and can communicate those facts

2

Forensic

The application of scientific knowledge to legal questions

3

Observation

What a person perceives using his or her senses

4

Perception

Interpreting information received from the senses

5

Deductive Reasoning

Deriving the consequences from the facts by using a series of logical steps

6

Deriving

Reasoning

7

Fact

A statement or assertion of information that can be verified

8

Logical

Conclusions drawn from assumptions and known facts

9

Opinion

Personal belief founded on judgement rather then on direct experience or knowledge

10

Rule of Admissibility of Evidence

If the evidence can be used in court or not

11

Chain of Custody

A list of all people who came into contact with an item of evidence

12

Class Characteristics

Properties of evidence that can be associated only with a group and never a single source

13

Frye standard

Rule of admissibility of evidence, procedure and equipment presented at trial must be generally accepted by the scientific community

14

Individual Characteristics

Properties of evidence that can be attributed to a common source with an extremely high degree of credibility

15

Locards exchange principle

when 2 objects come into contact with one another a cross transfer of material occurs

16

Cross transferring

Where you transfer materials between objects

17

Physical Evidence

Any object that can establish a crime has been committed or can link a suspect to a victim or a crime scene

18

Reference sample

A sample from a known source used for comparison, also known as exemplar

19

Scientific method

A series of logical steps to ensure careful and systematic collection, identification, organization and analysis of information

20

Soil examination (1 word definition)

Dirt

21

Ballistics (1 word definition)

Bullets

22

Document Examination (1 word definition)

Documents

23

DNA Analysis (example hint S and U)

Saliva and urine

24

Toxicology (1 word definition)

Poison

25

Latent fingerprinting (1 word definition)

Fingerprinting

26

Glass analysis (1 word definition)

Glass

27

Hair and Fiber (2 word definition)

Hair and clothing

28

Blood Spatter (1 word definition)

Spatter

29

Serology (1 word definition)

Blood

30

Entomology (1 word definition)

Bugs

31

Casts and Impressions (1 word definition)

Impressions

32

Odontology (1 word definition)

Teeth

33

Cyber Crimes (1 word definition)

Computer

34

Arson (1 word definition)

Fire

35

Pathology (1 word definition)

Autopsy

36

Mathieu Orfila

Father of toxicology

37

Alphonse Bertillon

Invented a body measurement system

38

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

Invented Sherlock Holmes

39

Hans Gross

Criminalistics

40

Francis Galton

Realized finger printing could be used

41

Sir Edward Richard Henry

Classified finger printing

42

Karl Landsteiner

Came up with different blood types

43

FBI

Largest forensic science lab in the world

44

Edmond Locard

Principle which has to do with cross transferring

45

Albert Osborne

Wrote Questions document

46

Leone Lattes

He typed blood for DRY stains

47

Calvin Goddard

Ballistics and comparison microscope

48

Frye v U.S.

Frye Standard

49

Rosalind Franklin

CAME UP with the structure of DNA

50

Watson and Crick

BUILT the DNA structure

51

Alec Jeffreys

DNA fingerprinting

52

Daubert v Merrell Dow

Trial judge ended up having the power to decide if expert testimony was admissible

53

What is the major difference between a field forensic scientist and a crime lab forensic scientist

Field scientist secures the crime scene
Crime forensic scientist receives or signs for evidence

54

Discovery ( the discovery in the trial process)

Both sides has to share their information

55

What are the 4 pretrial steps? (SADP)

Suspect arrested
Arraignment
Discovery
Preliminary hearing

56

What other route can the trial process go when it gets to discovery (PCS)

Plea deal offer accepted
Conviction
Sentencing

57

Post trial process (JACAS)

Jury deliberation
Acquittal
Conviction
Appeals Process
Sentencing

58

In what year was the US constitution signed

1787

59

Which amendment provides the right to trial by a jury of peers for criminal case?

6th amendment

60

Which amendment protects people against unreasonable search and seizure of their person and property?

4th Amendment

61

When will a judge issue a search warrant or arrest warrant?

Probable cause

62

What 3 things allow law enforcement to search or make an arrest without a warrant?

- person gives consent
- immediate danger
- immediate risk of evidence being destroyed

63

Arraignment

Pretrial conference between the prosecution and defense

64

In what type of cases is bail usually not offered

Capital murder

65

During what phase is a plea deal offered?

Discovery

66

What does reaching a unanimous verdict mean?

Everyone agrees on the verdict

67

When does the appeals process take place

After conviction

68

What type of evidence can be used?

No new evidence can be used, same evidence as the last trial

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