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Flashcards in Endocrine1 Deck (32):
1

Which hormone stimulates bone and muscle growth?

GH

2

Which hormone stimulates milk production? Milk secretion during lactation?

milk production-->prolactin
milk secretion-->oxytocin

3

Which hormone increases blood glucose levels and decreases protein synthesis?

glucocorticoids

4

Where are oxytocin and vasopressin made?

Oxytocin-->released from post pit, but made in hypothalamus paraventricular nucleus

Vasopressin-->released from post pit, but made in hypothalamus supraoptic nucleus

5

Where is testosterone made?

testes leydig cells-men
ovaries-women
adrenal cortex

6

What are the different forms of estrogen made?

Estradiol-ovaries
Estriol-placenta
Estrone-fat

Estrogen in men, testes.

7

Which receptors increase cAMP? Decrease it?

Increased by Gs, Decreased by Gi

8

Which hormones use cAMP messaging?

FLAT ChAMP calculates 2Gs
FSH
LH
ACTH
TSH
CRH
hCG
ADH (V2)
MSH
PTH
calcitonin
GHRH
glucagon

9

Which hormones use cGMP messaging?

ANP
BNP
NO (EDRF)
Vasodilators!

10

Which receptors cause increase in IP3?

Gq
Cutesies HAV1 M&M (M1 & M3)

11

Which hormones cause increase in IP3?

GOAT HAG
GnRH
Oxytocin
ADH (V1)
TRH
Histamine (H1)
Ang II
Gastrin

12

Which hormones target intracellular steroid receptorS?

Estrogen/Progesterone/Testosterone
Glucocorticoids
Aldosterone
Thyroid hormone
Vit D

13

Which hormones use intrinsic tyrosine kinase receptors?

MAP kinase pathway
growth factors!
Insulin
IGF-1
FGF
PDGF
EGF

14

Which hormones use receptor-associated tyrosine kinase receptors?

JAK/STAT pathway
PIGGlET
Prolactin
Immunomodulators (cytokines)
GH
G-CSF
EPO
THrombopoietin

15

What are some dopamine antagonists that can cause hyperprolactinemia?

antipsychotics (haloperidol, risperidone)
domperidone
metoclopramide

16

Where is somatostatin produced?

delta cells of pancreas
D cells of GI
nervous system

17

What are some somatostatin analogs?

octreotide
somatostatin LAR
lanreotide P

18

What are some indications for somatostatin analogs?

pituitary excess: acromegaly, thyrotropinoma, ACTH-secreting tumors
GI endocrine excess: zollinger-ellison syndrome, carcinoid syndrome, VIPoma, glucagonoma, insulinoma
diarrheal dx
Portal HTN: if you wanna reduce splanchnic circulation
bleeding peptic ulcers

19

What is Sheehan syndrome?

postpartum hemorrhage that leads to decreased blood flow to pituitary gland and partial infarction
decreased pituitary hormones released
get a galactorrhea, amenorrhea, fatigue, cold intolerance, weight gain

20

What is empty sella syndrome?

where the pituitary gland isn't sitting in the sella turcica where it should be
still some pituitary tissue left around...so usu asymptomatic
but if decreased pituitary hormones--associated symptoms

21

What are the hormones released from the ant pit?

FLAT PIG
FSH
LH
ACTH
TSH
Prolactin
Intermediate lobe-MSH
GH

22

What are the 2 secreting cell types found in the ant pit?

acidophils
basophils

23

What is secreted from the basophils?

B-FLAT
basophils--FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH

24

What is secreted from the acidophils?

PiG
prolactin
GH

25

What is the embryological origin of the ant pit and post pit?

ant pit: Rathke's pouch, ectodermal diverticulum
post pit: neuroectoderm, invagination of the hypothalamus

26

Which substances stimulate release of ADH?

Nicotine, opiates

27

Which substances inhibit release of ADH?

EtOH, ANF, decreased serum osmolarity

28

What is the downstream hormone of GH that is measured in suspected cases of acromegaly?

IGF-1

29

What increases GH release?

GHRH
exercise
sleep
puberty
hypoglycemia
estrogen
stress
endogenous opioids

30

What decreases GH release?

Somatostatin
Somatomedins
obesity
pregnancy
hyperglycemia

31

Why is GH considered the opposite of insulin?

GH increases w/ hypoglycemia
prevents glucose uptake by cells

32

How do you diagnose and treat acromegaly? Childhood version?

Childhood version-gigantism. Worry about the poor heart.
Diagnose: Look at increased IGF-1 levels. Glucose tolerance test still high GH levels (should have been suppressed)

Treat: somatostatin analog: octreotide, pegvisomant (GH receptor antagonist)