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Flashcards in Acid-Base Disorders Deck (14):
1

How can you tell if something is super compensated or a mixed disorder?

Compensation never brings pH fully back into a normal range.
Normal range--mixed disorder.

2

What is Winter's formula?

predicts resp compensation for simple metabolic acidosis

PCo2=1.5 (HCO3-) + 8 (+/- 2)

3

What can opioids cause?

decreased resp rate
respiratory acidosis

4

What is the formula for anion gap?

Anion Gap = Na - (Cl + HCO3-)

5

Which things cause high anion gap metabolic acidosis?

Added Acid
MUDPILES
methanol
uremia (kidney failure)
diabetic ketoacidosis
propylene glycol
iron tablets or isoniazid
lactic acidosis (shock)
ethylene glycol (antifreeze)
salicylates (aspirin late)

6

What are some things that can cause normal anion gap metabolic acidosis?

HARD ASS
hyperalimentation
addison's dx
renal tubular acidosis
diarrhea
acetazolamide
spironolactone
saline infusion

7

What is considered a normal anion gap?

8-12

8

What can cause metabolic alkalosis?

loop/thiazide diuretics
vomiting
antacid use
hyperaldosteronism (lose H+)

9

What's the deal with aspirin toxicity?

early: resp alkalosis
late: metabolic acidosis

10

What are the 3 types of renal tubular acidosis?

Type 1: Distal Urine pH>5.5. H+
Type 2: Proximal Urine pH

11

Describe the defect in Type 1 renal tubular acidosis in more detail.

alpha intercalated cells in CT can't secrete H+
get hypokalemia
increased risk for calcium phosphate kidney stones
amphotericin B can cause this

12

Describe Type 2 renal tubular acidosis in more detail.

PCT decreased HCO3- reabsorption
hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia
can be caused by Fanconi syndrome and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

13

Describe Type 4 renal tubular acidosis in more detail.

hypoaldosteronism, hyperkalemia
decreased NH4+ excretion

14

K+ of the 3 types of RTA? pH of urine?

Type 1 is the only one w/ urine pH>5.5
Type 4 is the only one w/ hyperkalemia