Flashcards in Acid-Base Disorders Deck (14):
How can you tell if something is super compensated or a mixed disorder?
Compensation never brings pH fully back into a normal range.
Normal range--mixed disorder.
What is Winter's formula?
predicts resp compensation for simple metabolic acidosis
PCo2=1.5 (HCO3-) + 8 (+/- 2)
What can opioids cause?
decreased resp rate
What is the formula for anion gap?
Anion Gap = Na - (Cl + HCO3-)
Which things cause high anion gap metabolic acidosis?
uremia (kidney failure)
iron tablets or isoniazid
lactic acidosis (shock)
ethylene glycol (antifreeze)
salicylates (aspirin late)
What are some things that can cause normal anion gap metabolic acidosis?
renal tubular acidosis
What is considered a normal anion gap?
What can cause metabolic alkalosis?
hyperaldosteronism (lose H+)
What's the deal with aspirin toxicity?
early: resp alkalosis
late: metabolic acidosis
What are the 3 types of renal tubular acidosis?
Type 1: Distal Urine pH>5.5. H+
Type 2: Proximal Urine pH
Describe the defect in Type 1 renal tubular acidosis in more detail.
alpha intercalated cells in CT can't secrete H+
increased risk for calcium phosphate kidney stones
amphotericin B can cause this
Describe Type 2 renal tubular acidosis in more detail.
PCT decreased HCO3- reabsorption
can be caused by Fanconi syndrome and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
Describe Type 4 renal tubular acidosis in more detail.
decreased NH4+ excretion