Flashcards in Cancer Deck (42):
What is the progression of cancer?
Carcinoma in situ
Invasive carcinoma (E-cadherin inactivated, no cell-cell adhesion)
What are the features of anaplasia?
clumping nuclear chromatin
high N/C ratio
more primitive/less mature
may see giant cells
T/F Neoplasia means malignancy.
F. may be benign or malignant
What is desmoplasia?
fibrous tissue after a neoplasm
Describe grading and staging a tumor.
grade: 1-4. 1: well differentiated. 4: poorly differentiated.
Which cancers metastasize to the liver?
Cancer Sometimes Penetrates Benign Liver
What is the origin, stain, and spread of carcinoma and sarcoma?
carcinoma--epithelial, spread by lymph, cytokeratin stain
sarcoma-mesenchymal, spread by blood
What are the benign and malignant forms of the following?
benign: hemangioma; malignant: angiosarcoma
benign: leiomyoma; malignant: leiomyosarcoma
benign: rhabdomyoma; malignant: rhabdomyosarcoma
benign: fibroma; malignant: fibrosarcoma
What is cachexia?
weight loss and loss of fat and lean muscle
b/c of increased basal metabolic rate from release of TNFalpha, IFNgamma, IL-1, IL-6 from chronic disease
What are the paraneoplastic syndromes created by small cell lung cancer?
Lambert Eaton--muscle weakness better w/ use, antibodies to presynaptic Ca++ channels at NMJ
What are the paraneoplastic syndromes created by renal cell carcinoma?
Which cancers can cause increased EPO release and polycythemia?
Potentially Really High HCT
Renal Cell Carcinoma
leimyomas (fibroids that bleed may not cause anemia b/c also secrete EPO)
When do you see PSaMMOma bodies?
papillary carcinoma thyroid
serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of ovary
Which tumors give mets to the brain?
Lots of Bad Stuff Kills Glia
Which tumors give mets to the bone?
Permanently Relocated Tumors Like Bone
What are the following associated w/?
a part of the PHiladelphia chromosome t(9;22) CML, ALL
tyrosine kinase intracellular
What are the following associated w/?
c-myc: burkitt lymphoma, transcription factor
L-myc: lung tumor, transcription factor
N-myc: neuroblastoma, transcription factor
What are the following related to?
all tumor suppressor genes
DCC: colon cancer
DPC4: pancreatic cancer
NF1: chromosome 17; neurofibromatosis type 1
NF2; chromosome 22; NF2, related to acoustic schwannomas
Describe what Rb does.
Rb regulates transition from G1-->S
released when it is phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase4-cyclin D
when it is mutated, can't regulate & can predispose to retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma
How many mutant alleles does it take to produce cancer w/ oncogenes? tumor suppressor genes?
tumor suppressor genes-2
What does p53 do?
responsible for half of all cancers
w/ p21 can arrest cell cycle
at G1/S and G2/M checkpoints
if it chooses can upregulat BAX for apoptosis
How does RAS work?
GPCR-->MAP kinase-->cell proliferation
Which cancers with these mutations:
K-RAS: Kolon, lung, pankreatic tumors
H-RAS: hematuria: bladder and kidney tumors
N-RAS: melanoma, hematologic malignancies, follicular thyroid cancer
What is the most common oncogene? Tumor suppressor gene?
tumor suppressor gene--p53
Which cancers are caused by ionizing radiation?
myeloid leukemias: AML, CML
Which type of ultraviolet radiation causes skin cancer?
UVB--forms pyrimidine dimers
What is used to treat actinic keratoses so that they don't transition into squamous cell carcinoma?
What are the important features of tuberous sclerosis?
ash leaf spots
1. cardiac rhabdomyoma
2. renal angiomyolipoma
What is a weird thing that HCV can cause?
papillary thyroid cancer
What are the cancers w/ highest incidence and mortality in US among men and women?
What type of cancer do aromatic amines--such as benzidine and 2-naphthylamine cause?
transitional cell carcinoma
naphthalene found in moth balls
What type of cancer does arsenic cause?
Squamous cell carcinoma
What type of cancer does carbon tetrachloride cause?
centrilobular necrosis, fatty change of the liver
Nitrosamines (smoked foods) like hotdogs cause what types of cancer?
squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus
Vinyl chloride, found in refrigeration can cause what type of cancer?
Screening for breast cancer, cervical cancer?
Breast: mammogram 50-75 1/2 yrs
Cervical: pap smear 1/3yrs 21-65
Screening for prostate, colon, lung cancer?
prostate: no recommendations
colon: colonscopy 1/10 yrs 50-75
flex sigmoidoscopy 1/5 yrs, fecal occult blood 1/1yr
Lung: annual CT lung 55-80 if 30 pack year hx of smoking and still smoking or quit
Which cancers are patients who are obese at increased risk for?
renal cell carcinoma
Women: gallbladder, endometrial
men: thyroid, colon
When you have a high fat diet, what are you at increased risk for in terms of cancer?
Butter, Chips, Pringles, stEak
Breast, Colon, Prostate, Endometrial
What are you at increased risk for w/ inactivity?
What do you the following tumor markers correspond to?
Alk Phosph: bone or liver
AFT: hepatocellular carcinoma
CEA: pancreatic, colorectal
S-100: melanoma, schwannoma
TRAP: hairy cell leukemia (CLL)