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Flashcards in Mycology Deck (31):
1

What are some conditions that candida albicans can cause?

oral thrus
esophageal candidiasis
vulvovaginitis
diaper rash
endocarditis IV drug abusers
disseminated candidiasis
chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis
intertrigo-w/i skin folds

2

How do you diagnose a candida infection? Treat?

diagnose w/ culture and look for germ tube
treat w/ topical azole or nystatin
fluconazole, caspofungin, or amphotericin B for more serious

3

What are the organisms that IV drug abusers are most susceptible to--getting endocarditis?

S. aureus
candida

4

What are some causes of esophagitis?

candida
CMV
HSV

5

What can aspergillus cause?

allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
aspergillomas-fungus balls in the lungs
**can release aflatoxins-->hepatocellular carcinoma

6

What is important to remember about the shape of aspergillus on culture?

acute angle aspergillosis 45degree angles

7

What's the deal with cryptococcus neoformans?

encapsulated yeast--india ink stain
cryptococcal meningitis
soap bubble lesions brain

narrow based budding

**found in soil and pigeon droppings

8

What do you use to treat cryptococcus?

amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole

9

What's the deal with mucor and rhizopus?

can cause mucormycosis in ketoacidotic diabetic and neutropenic (leukemia) patients
fungi proliferate in blood vessels, penetrate cribriform plate and enter brain.
Rhizopus--frontal lobe abscess
black necrotic eschar on face and cranial nerve involvement

10

What is special about the shape of mucor? Treatment?

flip M-->W
wide angles of branching for this broad, nonseptate hyphae

surgical debridement and amphotericin B is the treatment

11

WHat are the important things to know about pneumocystis jiroveccii?

bilateral diffuse ground glass opacities
disc-shaped yeast on methenamine silver stain

12

What are the dermatophytes?

**these are all fungi that cause cutaneous infections
Trichophyton
Microsporum
Epidermophyton
**sorta malassezia furfur

13

What are the different types of tinea?

Tinea pedis
Tinea cruris
Tinea Capitis
Tinea Corporis
Tinea inguium (onychomycosis)
Tinea versicolor

14

What is the stain for tinea?

KOH prep
blue fungal stain
see branching hyphae

15

Which tinea include ringworm?

tinea capitis
tinea corporis

16

What are the important features of tinea versicolor?

malassezia furfur
depigmented patches in summer
**degradation of lipids-->damages melanocytes
spaghetti and meatballs

17

What is the treatment for onychomycosis?

terbinafine, itraconazole, fluconazole

18

What is the treatment for simple and complex tinea?

Simple: topical terbinafine or azole
Complex: oral terbinafine or azole

19

Mold form w/ barrel-shaped arthroconidia?

coccidioides immitis

20

Broad based budding of yeast?

blastomyces

21

Multiple budding of yeast form?

paracoccidioides

22

Systemic mycoses are all caused by what type of fungi?

dimorphic fungi
cold-mold
heat-yeast

exception: coccidioides which is more of a spherule

23

How do systemic mycoses compare to TB?

similar: granulomas
disimilar: granulomas for mycoses are non-caseating
no person-person transmission

24

What are the general treatments for local and systemic mycoses infections?

Local: fluconazole, itraconazole
Systemic: amphotericin B

25

Which organisms are associated w/ birds?

Histoplasma-bird and bat droppings
Cryptosporidium--pigeon droppings, soil
Chlamydophila psittaci
H5N1
West Nile Virus

26

What are the important features of histoplasmosis?

Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys
bird and bat droppings
hide in macrophages
come in via pulmonary route
smaller than RBCs
often self-limited pneumonia

27

What are the important features of blastomycosis?

east of the Mississippi River
Central America
buds broadly
same size as RBC
granulomatous nodules
enters via lungs, but can go to skin or bone

28

What are the important features of coccidioides?

California and Southwest US
San Joaquin Valley Fever
found in soil, kicked up by earthquakes etc.
much larger than RBC
Form arthroconidia that are inhaled and form spherules in lung
can move to meningitis or skin or bone

29

What are the important features of paracoccidiodies?

GO parasailing to South America w/ captain wheel
Found in South America
much larger than RBC
forms budding yeast that looks like captain wheel
goes in via resp route

30

What are the important features of sporothrix?

cigar-shaped budding yeast found on vegetation
get into skin via thorn
nodules along draining lymphatics of the injury
associated w/ sphagnum moss

31

What is the treatment for sporothrix?

itraconazole and potassium iodide
Think put your ROSE in a POTassium iodide.