Flashcards in Mycology Deck (31):
What are some conditions that candida albicans can cause?
endocarditis IV drug abusers
chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis
intertrigo-w/i skin folds
How do you diagnose a candida infection? Treat?
diagnose w/ culture and look for germ tube
treat w/ topical azole or nystatin
fluconazole, caspofungin, or amphotericin B for more serious
What are the organisms that IV drug abusers are most susceptible to--getting endocarditis?
What are some causes of esophagitis?
What can aspergillus cause?
allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
aspergillomas-fungus balls in the lungs
**can release aflatoxins-->hepatocellular carcinoma
What is important to remember about the shape of aspergillus on culture?
acute angle aspergillosis 45degree angles
What's the deal with cryptococcus neoformans?
encapsulated yeast--india ink stain
soap bubble lesions brain
narrow based budding
**found in soil and pigeon droppings
What do you use to treat cryptococcus?
amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole
What's the deal with mucor and rhizopus?
can cause mucormycosis in ketoacidotic diabetic and neutropenic (leukemia) patients
fungi proliferate in blood vessels, penetrate cribriform plate and enter brain.
Rhizopus--frontal lobe abscess
black necrotic eschar on face and cranial nerve involvement
What is special about the shape of mucor? Treatment?
wide angles of branching for this broad, nonseptate hyphae
surgical debridement and amphotericin B is the treatment
WHat are the important things to know about pneumocystis jiroveccii?
bilateral diffuse ground glass opacities
disc-shaped yeast on methenamine silver stain
What are the dermatophytes?
**these are all fungi that cause cutaneous infections
**sorta malassezia furfur
What are the different types of tinea?
Tinea inguium (onychomycosis)
What is the stain for tinea?
blue fungal stain
see branching hyphae
Which tinea include ringworm?
What are the important features of tinea versicolor?
depigmented patches in summer
**degradation of lipids-->damages melanocytes
spaghetti and meatballs
What is the treatment for onychomycosis?
terbinafine, itraconazole, fluconazole
What is the treatment for simple and complex tinea?
Simple: topical terbinafine or azole
Complex: oral terbinafine or azole
Mold form w/ barrel-shaped arthroconidia?
Broad based budding of yeast?
Multiple budding of yeast form?
Systemic mycoses are all caused by what type of fungi?
exception: coccidioides which is more of a spherule
How do systemic mycoses compare to TB?
disimilar: granulomas for mycoses are non-caseating
no person-person transmission
What are the general treatments for local and systemic mycoses infections?
Local: fluconazole, itraconazole
Systemic: amphotericin B
Which organisms are associated w/ birds?
Histoplasma-bird and bat droppings
Cryptosporidium--pigeon droppings, soil
West Nile Virus
What are the important features of histoplasmosis?
Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys
bird and bat droppings
hide in macrophages
come in via pulmonary route
smaller than RBCs
often self-limited pneumonia
What are the important features of blastomycosis?
east of the Mississippi River
same size as RBC
enters via lungs, but can go to skin or bone
What are the important features of coccidioides?
California and Southwest US
San Joaquin Valley Fever
found in soil, kicked up by earthquakes etc.
much larger than RBC
Form arthroconidia that are inhaled and form spherules in lung
can move to meningitis or skin or bone
What are the important features of paracoccidiodies?
GO parasailing to South America w/ captain wheel
Found in South America
much larger than RBC
forms budding yeast that looks like captain wheel
goes in via resp route
What are the important features of sporothrix?
cigar-shaped budding yeast found on vegetation
get into skin via thorn
nodules along draining lymphatics of the injury
associated w/ sphagnum moss