Flashcards in Hypothyroidism Deck (26):
what types of myxedema are seen in hypo and hyperthyroidism?
Hypo: myxedema (facial/periorbital)
Hyper: pretibial myxedema
What are the drugs used to treat hypothyroidism?
levothyroxine (synthetic T4)
triiodothyronine (synthetic T3)
Which antibodies are seen in Hashimoto thyroiditis?
Those w/ Hashimoto have increased risk for what?
Non-hodgkin (b cell) lymphoma
Which genetic associations are there w/ Hashimoto's?
What is the genetic association for Grave's?
What are the gross findings in Hashimoto's?
What is found on histo w/ Hashimoto's?
lymphoid aggregate w/ germinal centers
What are the stages of Hashimoto's?
Euthyroid, see antibodies only
Destruction of thyroid: hypothyroid. Shrunken goiter. Histo looks like lymph nodes, lymphocytes etc.
What are some meds that can cause hypothyroidism?
tyrosine kinase inhibitors (chemo)
What are the 6Ps of congenital hypothyroidism/cretinism?
Poor brain development (ID)
Describe the course of subacute thyroiditis/de Quervain?
triggered by viral URI
early on: hyperthyroidism
What is the physical manifestation of subacute thyroiditis?
What is the histo of subacute thyroidits?
What is the genetic connection w/ subacute thyroiditis?
Which types of viral URIs can trigger subacute thyroiditis?
What is the treatment for subacute thyroidits?
NSAIDs and corticosteroids for pain
levothyroxine, once you have hypothyroidism
What happens in Riedel thyroiditis?
thyroid tissue replaced by fibrous tissue
this fibrosis can extend into other tissues (invasive)
see fixed hard painLESS goiter
What do you see on histo w/ Riedel thyroiditis?
What is the histo of the most common thyroid cancer?
orphan anne nuclei (cleared out)
Which genetic mutations are associated w/ papillary carcinoma?
tyrosine kinase receptors
Thyroidectomy followed by high dose radioactive iodine therapy is recommended for the treatment of which thyroid cancers?
NOT medullary carcinoma b/c this is a cancer of C cells!
Aside from papillary carcinoma, which other thyroid cancer has a RET mutation & also has MEN2A&2B mutations?
What's the deal with follicular carcinoma?
same as follicular adenoma, except that it invades the capsule
thank goodness has different genetic markers than follicular adenoma b/c can't tell capsule invasion w/ FNA. Now, fewer unnecessary surgeries
Why is it important to check patients w/ medullary carcinoma for pheochromocytoma before taking them to surgery?
b/c they have MEN2A & 2B mutations. High likelihood of pheochromocytoma
remember--this is a cancer of the C cells of the thyroid, high calcitonin