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Flashcards in Important Mnemonics Deck (58)
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1

What are the possible causes of acute pancreatitis?

BAD HITS

Biliary causes--gallstones
Alcohol
Drugs--esp HIV
Hypertriglyceridemia, Hypercalcemia
Idiopathic
Trauma (ERCP)
Scorpion Sting

2

Which drugs can cause hemolytic anemia for patients with G6PD deficiency?

Remember, can't make NADPH to replenish glutathione to deal with oxidative stress from H2O2 etc.

Spleen Purges Nasty Inclusions From Damaged Cells
Sulfonamides
Primaquine
Nitrofurantoin (antibiotic for UTIs, safe in pregnancy)
Isoniazid
Fava Beans
Dapsone (antibiotic used in leprosy)
Chloroquine

3

Features of Kwashiorkor?

FLAMES
Fatty liver (lack of ApoB100)
Anemia
Malnutrition (protein, not necessarily calories)
Edema (distended belly)
Skin lesions & depigmentation of skin and hair

malnourished kiddo w/ big belly.
Contrast to marasmus: total energy deficiency w/ muscle wasting.

4

Tricyclic antidepressant toxicity?

3Cs
cardiotoxicity
convulsions--cause hyperpyrexia
coma--see respiratory depression

5

What are the essential amino acids?

Private PVT TIM HaLL
Phenylalanine
valine
threonine
tryptophan
isoleucine
methionine
histidine
leucine
lysine

6

Which antihypertensives are safe to use during pregnancy?

Hypertensive Moms Love Nifedipine
Hydralazine
alpha-methyldopa
labetalol
nifedipine (dihydropyridine CCB)

7

What are the symptoms of pellagra? What causes pellagra?

Pellagra, caused by niacin deficiency (VitB3)
can be from lack of tryptophan-->niacin
Like Hartnup dx, decrease neutral AA transport in kidney

4Ds of pellagra:
diarrhea
dermatitis
dementia
death

8

Which AA show up in the urine of those w/ maple syrup urine dx?

branched AA
I Love Vermont Maple Syrup from trees (branched)
Isoleucine
leucine
valine

9

What are the symptoms of alkaptonuria?

Al Capone in a dark suit
homogentisic acid builds up w/ a dark pigment
dark CT, dark sclera, black urine when exposed to air

10

The COLA defect for PCT absorption of AA causes cystinuria. Which AA can't be transported?

cysteine
ornithine
lysine
arginine

11

What are the effects of lead poisoning?

LEAD
Lead Lines
Encephalopathy and erythrocyte basophilic stippling
Abdominal Colic & Sideroblastic Anemia
Drop: wrist, foot

12

Vit K is important for which clotting factors?

diSCo started in 1972
Protein C, S
Factors 2, 7, 9, 10

13

Which things cause eosinophilia?

CANADA P
collagen vascular dx
atopy, allergy
neoplasm
addison's dx
drugs
acute interstitial nephritis

parasites-esp helminthic

14

What are the meds used to treat Parkinson's?

BALSA
Bromocriptine (other dopamine agonists, pramipexole)
Amantadine
Levodopa + Carbidopa
Selegiline (decrease dopamine breakdown)
Antimuscarinics (like benztropine, only help w/ tremor)

15

Which hormones use cAMP messaging?

FLAT ChAMP calculates 2Gs
FSH
LH
ACTH
TSH
CRH
hCG
ADH (V2)
MSH
PTH
Calcitonin
GHRH
Glucagon

16

What hormones use IP3 messaging?

GOAT HAG
GnRH
Oxytocin
ADH (V1)
TRH
Histamine (H1)
Ang II
Gastrin

17

Which hormones use receptor associated tyrosine kinase?

PIGGlET
Prolactin
Immunomodulators
GH
G-CSF
EPO
Thrombopoietin

18

Which hormones from the ant pit are secreted by basophils?

B-FLAT
FSH
LH
ACTH
TSH

19

Which hormones are secreted by from the ant pit?

FLAT PIG
FSH
LH
ACTH
TSH
Prolactin
Intermediate lobe-MSH
GH

20

What are the symptoms of Cushing's syndrome?

BAM CUSHINGOID
buffalo hump, truncal obesity
amenorrhea
moon facies

crazy
ulcers (peptic)
skin: striae, easy bruising, acne
HTN
infection
necrosis of femoral head
glaucoma
osteoporosis
immunosuppression
diabetes

21

What are the signs of congenital hypothyroidism, cretinism?

6Ps
pot-bellied
protuberant tongue
pale
puffy-faced
protruding umbilicus
poor brain development (ID)

22

What are the causes of anion gap metabolic acidosis?

MUD PILES
Methanol
Uremia
DKA

Propylene glycol
iron tabs, isoniazid
lactic acidosis
ethylene glycol
salicylates

23

Symptoms of hypercalcemia?

Stones: kidney stones, nephrocalcinosis
Bones: osteoporosis, osteitits fibrosa cystica
Groans: abdominal pain, N/V, peptic ulcers, pancreatitis
Psychiatric OVertones: psychosis, lethargy, depression, coma

24

Causes of low Magnesium?

Maggie and her DADA
diarrhea
alcohol
diuretics
aminoglycosides

25

What are the possible causes of target cells?

HALT said the hunter to his target
Hb C dx
Asplenia
Liver dix
thalassemia

26

What are EPO-secreting tumors that can cause secondary polycythemia?

Potentially Really High Hct
Pheochromocytoma
Renal Cell Carcinoma
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Hemangioblastoma

27

What's the deal with fetal erythropoiesis?

Young Liver Synthesizes Blood
Yolk sac (3-8 wks)
Liver (6wks-->birth)
Spleen (10-28 weeks)
Bone Marrow (18 weeks-->adulthood)

28

What are the symptoms of TTP?

HUNT For The Toilet Paper
Hemolysis
uremia
neuro symptoms
thrombocytopenia
Fever
TTP

29

What are some causes of DIC?

STOP Making New Thrombi
Sepsis (gram neg)
Trauma
OB
pancreatitis (acute)
Malignancies
Nephrotic Syndrome
Transfusions

30

What are the live attenuated vaccines?

Live, watch Small Yellow Rotating Chickens get vaccinated by Sabin and MMR. Incredible!
LAV
SMall pox
yellow fever
rotavirus
VZV
Sabin Polio (oral)
MMR
Influenza (intranasal)