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Flashcards in Important Mnemonics Deck (58):
1

What are the possible causes of acute pancreatitis?

BAD HITS

Biliary causes--gallstones
Alcohol
Drugs--esp HIV
Hypertriglyceridemia, Hypercalcemia
Idiopathic
Trauma (ERCP)
Scorpion Sting

2

Which drugs can cause hemolytic anemia for patients with G6PD deficiency?

Remember, can't make NADPH to replenish glutathione to deal with oxidative stress from H2O2 etc.

Spleen Purges Nasty Inclusions From Damaged Cells
Sulfonamides
Primaquine
Nitrofurantoin (antibiotic for UTIs, safe in pregnancy)
Isoniazid
Fava Beans
Dapsone (antibiotic used in leprosy)
Chloroquine

3

Features of Kwashiorkor?

FLAMES
Fatty liver (lack of ApoB100)
Anemia
Malnutrition (protein, not necessarily calories)
Edema (distended belly)
Skin lesions & depigmentation of skin and hair

malnourished kiddo w/ big belly.
Contrast to marasmus: total energy deficiency w/ muscle wasting.

4

Tricyclic antidepressant toxicity?

3Cs
cardiotoxicity
convulsions--cause hyperpyrexia
coma--see respiratory depression

5

What are the essential amino acids?

Private PVT TIM HaLL
Phenylalanine
valine
threonine
tryptophan
isoleucine
methionine
histidine
leucine
lysine

6

Which antihypertensives are safe to use during pregnancy?

Hypertensive Moms Love Nifedipine
Hydralazine
alpha-methyldopa
labetalol
nifedipine (dihydropyridine CCB)

7

What are the symptoms of pellagra? What causes pellagra?

Pellagra, caused by niacin deficiency (VitB3)
can be from lack of tryptophan-->niacin
Like Hartnup dx, decrease neutral AA transport in kidney

4Ds of pellagra:
diarrhea
dermatitis
dementia
death

8

Which AA show up in the urine of those w/ maple syrup urine dx?

branched AA
I Love Vermont Maple Syrup from trees (branched)
Isoleucine
leucine
valine

9

What are the symptoms of alkaptonuria?

Al Capone in a dark suit
homogentisic acid builds up w/ a dark pigment
dark CT, dark sclera, black urine when exposed to air

10

The COLA defect for PCT absorption of AA causes cystinuria. Which AA can't be transported?

cysteine
ornithine
lysine
arginine

11

What are the effects of lead poisoning?

LEAD
Lead Lines
Encephalopathy and erythrocyte basophilic stippling
Abdominal Colic & Sideroblastic Anemia
Drop: wrist, foot

12

Vit K is important for which clotting factors?

diSCo started in 1972
Protein C, S
Factors 2, 7, 9, 10

13

Which things cause eosinophilia?

CANADA P
collagen vascular dx
atopy, allergy
neoplasm
addison's dx
drugs
acute interstitial nephritis

parasites-esp helminthic

14

What are the meds used to treat Parkinson's?

BALSA
Bromocriptine (other dopamine agonists, pramipexole)
Amantadine
Levodopa + Carbidopa
Selegiline (decrease dopamine breakdown)
Antimuscarinics (like benztropine, only help w/ tremor)

15

Which hormones use cAMP messaging?

FLAT ChAMP calculates 2Gs
FSH
LH
ACTH
TSH
CRH
hCG
ADH (V2)
MSH
PTH
Calcitonin
GHRH
Glucagon

16

What hormones use IP3 messaging?

GOAT HAG
GnRH
Oxytocin
ADH (V1)
TRH
Histamine (H1)
Ang II
Gastrin

17

Which hormones use receptor associated tyrosine kinase?

PIGGlET
Prolactin
Immunomodulators
GH
G-CSF
EPO
Thrombopoietin

18

Which hormones from the ant pit are secreted by basophils?

B-FLAT
FSH
LH
ACTH
TSH

19

Which hormones are secreted by from the ant pit?

FLAT PIG
FSH
LH
ACTH
TSH
Prolactin
Intermediate lobe-MSH
GH

20

What are the symptoms of Cushing's syndrome?

BAM CUSHINGOID
buffalo hump, truncal obesity
amenorrhea
moon facies

crazy
ulcers (peptic)
skin: striae, easy bruising, acne
HTN
infection
necrosis of femoral head
glaucoma
osteoporosis
immunosuppression
diabetes

21

What are the signs of congenital hypothyroidism, cretinism?

6Ps
pot-bellied
protuberant tongue
pale
puffy-faced
protruding umbilicus
poor brain development (ID)

22

What are the causes of anion gap metabolic acidosis?

MUD PILES
Methanol
Uremia
DKA

Propylene glycol
iron tabs, isoniazid
lactic acidosis
ethylene glycol
salicylates

23

Symptoms of hypercalcemia?

Stones: kidney stones, nephrocalcinosis
Bones: osteoporosis, osteitits fibrosa cystica
Groans: abdominal pain, N/V, peptic ulcers, pancreatitis
Psychiatric OVertones: psychosis, lethargy, depression, coma

24

Causes of low Magnesium?

Maggie and her DADA
diarrhea
alcohol
diuretics
aminoglycosides

25

What are the possible causes of target cells?

HALT said the hunter to his target
Hb C dx
Asplenia
Liver dix
thalassemia

26

What are EPO-secreting tumors that can cause secondary polycythemia?

Potentially Really High Hct
Pheochromocytoma
Renal Cell Carcinoma
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Hemangioblastoma

27

What's the deal with fetal erythropoiesis?

Young Liver Synthesizes Blood
Yolk sac (3-8 wks)
Liver (6wks-->birth)
Spleen (10-28 weeks)
Bone Marrow (18 weeks-->adulthood)

28

What are the symptoms of TTP?

HUNT For The Toilet Paper
Hemolysis
uremia
neuro symptoms
thrombocytopenia
Fever
TTP

29

What are some causes of DIC?

STOP Making New Thrombi
Sepsis (gram neg)
Trauma
OB
pancreatitis (acute)
Malignancies
Nephrotic Syndrome
Transfusions

30

What are the live attenuated vaccines?

Live, watch Small Yellow Rotating Chickens get vaccinated by Sabin and MMR. Incredible!
LAV
SMall pox
yellow fever
rotavirus
VZV
Sabin Polio (oral)
MMR
Influenza (intranasal)

31

What are the killed vaccines?

RIP Always Creepy Raccoon
Rabies virus
Influenza (injectable)
salk polio
Hep A

32

Naked RNA?

Real Heavy Picture of California was Ruined w/o envelope
Reovirus
Hepevirus
Picornavirus
Calicivirus
RNA

33

Naked DNA?

PaPa and Aunt Poly Didn't have an envelope.
Papilloma virus
Parvovirus
Adenovirus
Polyoma virus
DNA

34

What are the fecal-oral nematodes?

EAT
enterobius
ascaris
trichinella

35

What are the sand skin nematodes?

SANd
Strongyloides
Ancylostoma
Necator

36

What are the conditions that are treated by metronidazole?

GET GAP on the Metro
giardia
entamoeba
trichomonas

gardnerella vaginalis
anaerobic bacteria
h. pylori

37

Which tumors give mets to the brain?

Lots of Bad Stuff Kill Glia
Lung
Breast
Skin (melanoma)
Kidney (RCC)
GI (colon)

38

Which tumors give mets to the bone?

Permanently Relocated Tumors Like Bone
Prostate (blastic)
RCC (lytic)
Thyroid (lytic)
Lung (mixed)
Breast (mixed)

39

Which tumors give mets to the liver?

Cancer Sometimes Penetrates Benign Liver
Colon
Stomach
Pancreas
Breast
Liver

40

Which things secrete EPO?

Potentially Really High Hct
Pheochromocytoma
RCC
Hemangioblastoma
Hepatocellular Carcinoma

leiomyomas

41

Which drugs act on microtubules?

Microtubules Get Constructed Very Poorly
Mebendazoles (anti-helminthic)
Griseofulvin (antifungal)
Colchicine (antigout)
Vincristine/Vinblastine
Paclitaxel

42

What are the X-linked recessive diseases?

Oblivious Females Will Give Her Boys Her x-Linked Disorders
ocular albinism
fabry dx
wiskott-aldrich
g6pd deficiency
hemophilia A &B
Bruton agammaglobulinemia
Hunter syndrome
Lesch Nyhan
Duchenne and Becker MD

43

What are the microbes that take gram stain well?

Certain Bugs Really Try my Patience
Chlamydia
Borrelia
Rickettsia
Trypanosomes
Plasmodium

44

What are the components of the Thayer-Martin agar?

grows Neisseria
Very Typically Cultures Neisseria
Vancomycin
Trimethoprim
Colistin
Nystatin

45

What are the aerobes?

Nagging Pests Must Breathe
Nocardia
Pseudomonas
Mycobacterium

46

What are the anaerobes?

Frankly Can't Breathe Air
Fusobacterium
Clostridium
Bacterioides
Actinomyces
suscpetible to oxidative damage b/c don't have catalase or superoxide dismutase

47

What are the obligate intracellular bugs?

Rickettsia
Chlamydia
Coxiella (Really Chilly and Cold)

48

What are the facultative intracellular bugs?

Some Nasty Bugs May Live FacultativeLY
Salmonella
Neisseria
Brucella
Mycobacterium
Listeria
Francisella
Legionella
Yersinia

49

What are the encapsulated bacteria?

Even Some Pretty Nasty Killers Have Shiny Bodies
E Coli
Strep pneumo
Pseudomonas
Neisseria
Klebsiella
H. influenza
Salmonella
group B strep

50

What are the urease + organisms?

CHuck norrish hates PUNKSS
Cryptococcus
H. Pylori
Proteus
Ureaplasma
Nocardia
Klebsiella
S. epidermis
S. saprophyticus

51

What are the catalase + organisms?

Cats Need PLACESS to hide
Catalase +
Nocardia
Pseudomonas
Listeria
Aspergillus
Candida
E. Coli
Staph
Serratia

52

What are the criteria for diagnosing rheumatic fever?

S. pyogenes infection
+2 Major or 1 Major & 1 minor criteria
Major: JONES
Joints-polyarthritis
heart-pancarditis
nodules-subcu
erythema marginatum
sydenham chorea

Minor: Arthralgia
Fever
Elevated ESR or CRP
PR interval increased on EKG

53

What does S. pneumo cause?

Most OPtochin Sensitive
Meningitis
Otitis Media
Pneumonia
Sinusitis

54

What does H. influenza cause?

hEMOPhilus
Epiglottitis
Meningitis
Otitis MEdia
Pneumonia

55

What types of infection are caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa?

PSEUDDOmonas
pneumonia (esp ventilator-associated)
Sepsis
Otitis Externa (Swimmer's Ear)
UTI
Drug Use
Diabetes
Osteomyelitis

56

Which RNA viruses are neg. stranded?

Always Bring Polymerase Or Fail Replication
Arenavirus
Bunyavirus
Paramyxovirus
Orthomyxovirus
Filovirus
Rhabdovirus

57

What are bad antibiotics to use during pregnancy?

SAFe Children Take Really Good Care of Mom
Sulfonamides-kernicterus
Aminoglycosides-ototoxicity
Clarithromycin-embryotoxic
Tetracyclines
Ribavirin
Griseofulvin
Chloramphenicol
Metronidazole-1st tri is mutagenic

58

What are the retroperitoneal structures?

SAD PUCKER
Suprarenal gland
Aorta and IVC
Duodenum 2-4
Pancreas (Except tail)
Ureters
Colon (ascending and descending)
Kidneys
Esophagus
Rectum (partial)