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Flashcards in Protozoa Deck (26):
1

Describe the life cycle of malaria?

Mosquito injects sporozoite into skin
Sporozoites go to the liver
Exoerythrocytic cycle: sporozoites-->early schizont-->late schizont-->merozoites rupture the hepatocyte and go into the bloodstream and attach to RBCs.
Erythrocytic cycle: Trophozoite (looks like engagement ring)-->early schizont-->late schizont-->merozoites that rupture.
Get gametocytes that go back into mosquito

2

Which conditions can be treated with metronidazole?

GET GAP on the Metro
giardia
entamoeba
trichomonas
gardnerella
anaerobic bacteria
H. Pylori

3

How do you treat malaria?

chloroquine (heme polymerase inhibitor)
latent phase--primaquine
resistant malaria: quinine + doxycycline

4

What is the most common protozoal diarrhea?

giardia

5

What are the important things to know about giardia?

campers drink water w/ giardia
causes fatty diarrhea, flatulence, bloating

Owl body b/c 2 nuclei

can see trophozoites in stool

treat w/ metronidazole

6

What are the important things to know about entamoeba histolytica?

causes amebiasis
bloody diarrhea
liver abscess-anchovy paste, flask-shaped ulcer, RUQ pain
have multiple nuclei

7

What are the important things to know about cryptosporidium?

causes severe diarrhea
oocysts that are acid fast
nitazoxanide used to treat

8

What causes bacterial dysentery? What causes bloody diarrhea protozoal?

bacterial dysentery: shigella
protozoal dysentery: entamoeba histolytica

9

Cryptococcus causes what? Cryptosporidium causes what?

cryptococcus--meningitis
cryptosporidium--severe diarrhea

10

What are the important things to know about toxoplasma gondii?

AIDS: ring-enhancing lesion
found in meat, cat feces, crosses placenta
congenital toxoplasmosis

11

What are the features of congenital toxoplasmosis?

chorioretinitis
hydrocephalus
intracranial calcifications

12

What is the treatment for toxoplasma?

sulfadiazine
pyrimethamine
folinic acid

13

WHat do you need to know about naegleria fowleri?

Nalgene-filled w/ fresh water
swimming in fresh water lakes
Naegleria enters cribriform plate-->meningoencephalitis

14

HOw do you treat naegleria fowleri?

amphotericin B

15

What are the important things to know about African Sleeping Sickness?

Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense + gambiense
enlarged lymph nodes, fever, somnolence, coma, encephalitis

spread by tsetse fly

treated w/ suramin and melarsoprol (CNS penetration)
Sure is nice to sleep. Melatonin helps you sleep.

16

What are the important things to know about malaria?

Plasmodium Vivax/Ovale-tertian 48 hour cycle. dormant form in liver (hypnozoite).
Plasmodium malaria--72 hour cycle, quartan
Plasmodium Falciparum--most severe, occlude capillaries in brain, kidney, lungs.

17

Which bug spreads malaria?

Anopheles mosquito

18

When do you see schuffner stippling?

red granules seen in malaria seen in RBC cytoplasm of P vivax/ovale

19

What's the deal with babesiosis?

northeastern US--ixodes tick
fever and hemolytic anemia
see Maltese cross and ring form on blood smear

20

What is the treatment for basesiosis?

atovaquone + azithromycin
quinine + clindamycin

21

What causes chagas disease?

Trypansoma Cruzi
Everything gets big!
cardiomyopathy
megacolon
megaesophagus
found in South America
**sometimes unilateral periorbital swelling (romana sign)

spread by reduviid bug (kissing bug)

22

What are the important features of Leishmania donovani?

causes visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis
spread by sandfly
see macrophages w/ amastigotes (lack flagella)

23

What are the features of visceral leishmaniasis?

spiking fevers
HSM
pancytopenia

24

What is the treatment for leishmaniasis?

Amphotericin B--visceral
Sodium stibogluconate for cutaneous

25

What are the important features of trichomonas?

foul-smelling
flagellated
vaginal itching
greenish discharge
increases vaginal pH
see trophozoites on wet mount
get strawberry cervix
treated w/ metronidazole.

26

Which protozoa are spread this way?
sandfly
reduviid bug
ixodes tick
tsetse fly
anopheles mosquito?

sandfly--leishmaniasis
reduviid bug--trypansoma cruz (chagas)
ixodes tick-Lyme dx and babesiosis
tsetse fly-trypansoma brucei
anopheles mosquito-malaria