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1

Where is Virchow's node located?

left supraclavicular nodes
could indicate gastric cancer

2

What are the treatments for acute and chronic gout?

Acute: NSAIDs (indomethacin), corticosteroids, colchicine
Chronic: allopurinol, febuxostat, probenecid, colchicine, NSAIDs

3

What is the common triad for sjogren syndrome?

xeropthalmia
xerostomia
arthritis

4

What is the difference b/w polymyositis and polymyalgia rheumatica?

polymyositis: weakness of muscles, increased CK and aldolase, (+) ANA (+) Anti-Jo-1
polymyalgia rheumatica: no weakness, just joint pain. Normal CK & ALdolase

5

What is wrong in myasthenia gravis? Which meds are used to treat it?

acetylcholine receptors are attacked by autoantibodies
increase ACh to treat it via acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
pyridostigmine & physostigmine
diagnosed via echothiophate

6

Embryo origin of the following
smooth part of L & R ventricles
Smooth part of RA
Trabeculated L & R atria
Trabeculated L & R Ventricles

smooth part of L & R ventricles: bulbus cordis
Smooth part of RA: R horn sinus venosus
Smooth part of LA: Primitive pulmonary vein
Trabeculated L & R atria: primitive atrium
Trabeculated L & R Ventricles: primitive ventricles
L horn of sinus venosus-->coronary sinus
R common cardinal vein and R anterior cardinal vein-->SVC

7

Which bacteria secrete enterotoxins?

ETEC
Shigella
Yersinia
S. aureus
V. cholera
Clostridium

8

What is Charcot's neurological triad? What is it indicative of?

Multiple Sclerosis
SIIN
Scanning Speech
Intention tremor
Incontinence
Internuclear opthalmoplegia
nystagmus

9

What is subacute endocarditis? Which organisms are most likely to cause this?

subacute--endocarditis w/ small vegetations on congenitally malformed valves or diseased valves
Mainly think viridans strep
also think enterococci and s. epidermis (usually prosthetic valves tho)

10

What is this?
Obligate anaerobe
Gram +
Spore-forming ROd

Clostridium

11

Why can't aminoglycosides be used for gram + anaerobes? What are they used for?

require O2 to be taken into the cell
used for gram neg.

12

What can fight gram + anaerobes?

metronidazole
clindamycin

13

What does MPTP exposure do?

depletes dopamine in substantia nigra

14

Hemiballismus is caused by a lesion where?

contralateral subthalamic nucleus

15

Which enzyme used in DNA replication has 5->3' polymerase activity, as well as 3'-5' exonuclease activity and 5'-3' exonuclease activity?

DNA pol I

16

What does alkaline phosphatase activity reflect?

osteoblastic activity

17

Which markers reflex osteoclastic activity?

urinary deoxypyridinoline
urinary hydroxyproline
tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase

18

What runs with the posterior circumflex artery?

axillary nerve

19

What runs w/ the deep brachial artery?

radial nerve

20

What runs w/ the brachial artery?

median nerve

21

What is albuminocytologic dissociation?

cell count normal.
protein high
Seen in Guillan Barre Syndrome

22

Give 4 causes of a rash on the palms and soles.

secondary syphilis
rocky mountain spotted fever
coxsackie A virus
kawasaki dx

23

What are lichtenburg figures?

dermatologic pattern indicative of a lightning strike
see branching redness on skin where the electric current traveled

24

Most antipsychotics act on which receptor? What about clozapine?

most--D2.
clozapine--acts on D4.

25

Derivatives of the 3rd aortic arch?

common carotid
proximal part of the internal carotid

26

Derivatives of the 4th aortic arch?

L part: aortic arch
R part: proximal part of the R subclavian artery

27

Derivatives of the 6th aortic arch?

proximal pulmonary arteries
ductus arteriosus

28

What is the flow of aqueous humor?

made by ciliary bodies-->posterior chamber-->thru angle by iris and lens-->anterior chamber-->reabsorbed by canal of schlemm

29

What is the MOA of metoclopramide?

inhibits D2, stimulates 5-HT receptors
stimulates GI motility, good for gastroparesis

30

What are the symptoms of serotonin syndrome ?

muscle rigidity
hyperthermia
cardiovascular collapse (autonomic instability)