Flashcards in Review Questions Deck (66):
Where is Virchow's node located?
left supraclavicular nodes
could indicate gastric cancer
What are the treatments for acute and chronic gout?
Acute: NSAIDs (indomethacin), corticosteroids, colchicine
Chronic: allopurinol, febuxostat, probenecid, colchicine, NSAIDs
What is the common triad for sjogren syndrome?
What is the difference b/w polymyositis and polymyalgia rheumatica?
polymyositis: weakness of muscles, increased CK and aldolase, (+) ANA (+) Anti-Jo-1
polymyalgia rheumatica: no weakness, just joint pain. Normal CK & ALdolase
What is wrong in myasthenia gravis? Which meds are used to treat it?
acetylcholine receptors are attacked by autoantibodies
increase ACh to treat it via acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
pyridostigmine & physostigmine
diagnosed via echothiophate
Embryo origin of the following
smooth part of L & R ventricles
Smooth part of RA
Trabeculated L & R atria
Trabeculated L & R Ventricles
smooth part of L & R ventricles: bulbus cordis
Smooth part of RA: R horn sinus venosus
Smooth part of LA: Primitive pulmonary vein
Trabeculated L & R atria: primitive atrium
Trabeculated L & R Ventricles: primitive ventricles
L horn of sinus venosus-->coronary sinus
R common cardinal vein and R anterior cardinal vein-->SVC
Which bacteria secrete enterotoxins?
What is Charcot's neurological triad? What is it indicative of?
What is subacute endocarditis? Which organisms are most likely to cause this?
subacute--endocarditis w/ small vegetations on congenitally malformed valves or diseased valves
Mainly think viridans strep
also think enterococci and s. epidermis (usually prosthetic valves tho)
What is this?
Why can't aminoglycosides be used for gram + anaerobes? What are they used for?
require O2 to be taken into the cell
used for gram neg.
What can fight gram + anaerobes?
What does MPTP exposure do?
depletes dopamine in substantia nigra
Hemiballismus is caused by a lesion where?
contralateral subthalamic nucleus
Which enzyme used in DNA replication has 5->3' polymerase activity, as well as 3'-5' exonuclease activity and 5'-3' exonuclease activity?
DNA pol I
What does alkaline phosphatase activity reflect?
Which markers reflex osteoclastic activity?
tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase
What runs with the posterior circumflex artery?
What runs w/ the deep brachial artery?
What runs w/ the brachial artery?
What is albuminocytologic dissociation?
cell count normal.
Seen in Guillan Barre Syndrome
Give 4 causes of a rash on the palms and soles.
rocky mountain spotted fever
coxsackie A virus
What are lichtenburg figures?
dermatologic pattern indicative of a lightning strike
see branching redness on skin where the electric current traveled
Most antipsychotics act on which receptor? What about clozapine?
clozapine--acts on D4.
Derivatives of the 3rd aortic arch?
proximal part of the internal carotid
Derivatives of the 4th aortic arch?
L part: aortic arch
R part: proximal part of the R subclavian artery
Derivatives of the 6th aortic arch?
proximal pulmonary arteries
What is the flow of aqueous humor?
made by ciliary bodies-->posterior chamber-->thru angle by iris and lens-->anterior chamber-->reabsorbed by canal of schlemm
What is the MOA of metoclopramide?
inhibits D2, stimulates 5-HT receptors
stimulates GI motility, good for gastroparesis
What are the symptoms of serotonin syndrome ?
cardiovascular collapse (autonomic instability)
What are the risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma?
Hep B, C
alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency
Damage to R optic nerve prior to pretectal nucleus. What happens?
R eye light-->no constriction of either eye. Info can't get to pretectal nucleus to message the edinger westphal nucleus
L eye light--> constriction of both eyes. as long as it gets to the pretectal nucleus, both eyes should respond.
What are the features of neuroleptic malignant syndrome?
muscle rigidity-->myoglobinuria and hyperpyrexia
delirium, mental status changes
treat w/ dantrolene, inhibits Ca++ release from SR in skeletal muscle, relaxation
What are the HTN meds used to treat aortic dissection?
What are some causes of ARDS that might not be so obvious?
high conc'n O2 for long periods of time.
Which anti-HTN drugs act on MLCK to decrease BP?
What are the acute phase cytokines?
What are the tumor markers for pancreatic cancer?
CEA: also elevated in gastric cancer
What are the 2 nervous tissue bundles in the GI tract ?
Meissner's plexus: submucosa
Auerbach/Myenteric plexus: b/w 2 layers of the mucsularis mucosa
Which dx targets the destruction of the anterior horn of the spinal cord?
West Nile Virus
Werdnig-Hoffman (spinal musculodystrophy)
What is the treatment for nephrogenic DI?
possible cause: Lithium
amiloride (to inhibit lithium)
indomethacin to decrease renal blood flow
Does alkalosis mean high extracellular K+ or low?
K+ low extracellulary
b/c H+ being pushed into serum as K+ is pushed into cells.
What is the Z score for 99% confidence interval? 95%?
What are some causes of restrictive cardiomyopathy?
Which substance inhibits RNA pol II in eukaryotes?
Death cap mushroom
What does WAGR complex stand for?
complications of a Wilms tumor, seen in children
A-aniridia (congenital absence of the iris)
Retardation (mental and motor)
What is the change to BMP that you see w/ status asthmatics patients?
they are on beta agonists
get hypokalemia, shift of K+ into cells.
maybe think of repolarization?
Which vitamin should vegetarians make sure they get supplemented?
Focal myocardial inflammation w/ multinucleate giant cells?
Aschoff bodies, rheumatic fever
Eosinophilic cytoplasmic globules near nucleus in liver?
Mallory Bodies, Alcoholic Liver
What is the cup:disc ratio for glaucoma?
What are the presenting features of meniere's disease?
What do signet ring cells signify?
What does a nutmeg liver signify?
R sided heart failure
Goal a1c for diabetic patient?
less than 7
What is the MOA of the treatment lactulose?
binds up and decreases ammonium levels
good for patients w/ cirrhosis and high ammonium
What are painful raised lesions on the finger pads and fever?
Which conditions can cause posterior cervical LAD?
Cat Scratch Dx-Bartonella
What stimulates prolactin secretions?
Pigmented hamartomas of iris?
Owl's eye protozoan?
Which organism is associated w/ puppy feces?
Which organism is associated w/ animal urine?
Which diseases can cause strawberry tongue?
toxic shock syndrome