Module 29 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 29 Deck (19):
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Cognition

Refers to a process that involves knowing, understanding, remembering and. communicating.

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Cognitive psychologists

Thinking involves a number of mental activities listed below, and cognition psychologists study with them with great detail.

concepts, problem-solving, decision-making, and judgment formation.

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Hierarchies

Ways to organize concepts in a way that makes them more simple for us to understand.

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Prototype

We form concepts by a mental image or a best example that incorporates items in a category, which is a prototype.

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Algorithms

Methodical, logical of rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.

Algorithms exhaust all possibilities before arriving at a solution. They take a long time.

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Heuristics

Simple thinking strategy is that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently. Speedier but more error-prone than algorithms.

Heuristics make it easy for us to use simple principles to arrive at solutions to problems.

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Insight

Involves sudden novel realization of the solution to a problem. Inside is in humans and animals.

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Right temporal cortex

This cortex activates when an insight strikes.

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Confirmation bias

A tendency to search for information that confirms a personal bias.

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Fixation

Inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective. Impediment to problem-solving. Two examples are mental set and functional fixedness.

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Mental set

A tendency to approach a problem in a particular way especially away that has been successful in the past.

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Functional fixedness

A tendency to think of the only familiar functions for objects.

The inability to think about screwdriver as a weight is functional fixedness about the project.

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Representative heuristic

Judging the likelihood of things or objects in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match a particular Proto type.

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Availability heuristic

Whatever increases the ease of retrieving information increases it's perceived availability.

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Overconfidence

Tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments.

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Exaggerated fear

Opposed to overconfidence is our tendency for exaggerated fear about how things may happen.

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Framing

How an issue or an object is represented.

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Belief bias

The tendency for one's pre-existing beliefs to distort logical reasoning sometimes by making in valid conclusions.

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Belief perseverance

Our tendency to cling to our beliefs in the face of contrary evidence.

Once you see a country is hostile you're likely to interpret ambiguous actions on their part as signifying there hostility.