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AP Psychology > Thinking > Flashcards

Flashcards in Thinking Deck (15):
0

Symbolic

The representation has none of the qualities of the thing it represents.

1

Visual (mental) imagery

Representations of sensory experience that occur in the brain, without the presence of sensory input.

2

Concept formation

Mental classification of objects and events based on common features.

3

Concept

A class or category with individuals or subtypes (birds).

4

Prototype

The best example of a concept (sparrow).

5

Problem solving

The use of a set of information to achieve a goal. There are two main strategies.

6

Algorithm

A systematic step-by-step method of trying every possible solution.

7

Heuristic

Use a rule of thumb that worked in the past; does not guarantee a solution.

8

Availability heuristic

A rule of thumb by which we rely on information that is more prominent are easily recalled and overlook other information that is available but less prominent or notable.

9

Representative heuristic

Judging a situation based on how similar it is to a prototypical situation, regardless of how common the situation is.

10

Decision making

The process of choosing between options.

11

Framing

The way problem is posed affects the perception of how it is best solved.

12

Reasoning

A mental process by which we apply knowledge to achieve goals that involves solving problems are making plans and decisions.

13

Inductive reasoning

Reasoning from particulars to the general: using particular experiences or observations to draw a broader conclusion.

14

Deductive reasoning

Reasoning from the general to the particular: driving a conclusion about particulars that is based on a general assumption that one knows our believes to be true.