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Personality

The individuals characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.

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Psychodynamic Perspective

In his clinical practice, Freud encountered patients suffering from nervous disorders whose complaints could not be explained in terms of purely physical causes.

Personality is the result of our efforts to resolve the conflict breeze our aggressive, pleasure seeking impulses and the internalized social restraints against them.

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Exploring the unconscious

A reservoir (unconscious mind) of Mosul unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. Freud asked patients to say whatever came to their mind (free association) to tap the unconscious.

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Dream analysis

Another method to analyze the unconscious mind through interpreting the manifest and latent content of dreams.

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Latent content

What dreams symbolically means.

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Manifest content

What actually was seen in the dream.

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Psychoanalysis

The process of free association let to painful, embarrassing unconscious memories. Once these memories were retrieved and released, the patient felt better.

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Id

Contains reservoir of unconscious psychic energy.

Strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives.

Operates on the pleasure principle (demands immediate gratification).

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Ego

Largely conscious "executive" part of personality.

Mediates among the demands of the Id and superego, and reality.

Ex: baby is hungry and Id responds by crying. Ego has taught baby that it's need will be met shortly so there's no need to cry.

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Superego

The part of the personality that presents internalized ideals. CONSCIENCE.

Provides standards for judgement (the conscience) and for future aspirations.

Represents persons moral code.

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Personality structure

Personality develops as a result of our efforts to resolve conflict between our biological, pleasure seeking impulses (Id) and social restraints (superego).

Think ICEBERG

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Psychosexual stages

Freud believed that personality formed during life's first few years divided into psychosexual stages. During the stages, the ids pleasure seeking energies focused on pleasure sensitive body areas called erogenous zones.

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Oral stage

Pleasure centers on the mouth, sucking, biting, chewing.

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Anal stage

Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control.

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Phallic stage

Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings.

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Latency stage

Dormant sexual feelings.

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Genital stage

Maturation of sexual interests.

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Fixations

A strong conflict can lock one in the psychosexual stage.

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Oedipus/Electra complex

A boys sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father. Also electric complex for the girls desire for the father.

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Repression

Banishes anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. Slips out in dreams and slips of the tongue.

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Regression

Leads and individual faced with anxiety to retreat to a more infantile psychosexual stage.

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Reaction formation

Causes the ego to unconsciously switch unacceptable impulses into their opposites. People may express feelings of purity when they may be suffering anxiety from unconscious feelings about sex.

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Projection

Defense mechanism that involves taking our own unacceptable qualities are feelings and attribute in them to other people. For example, she doesn't trust me becomes I don't trust her.

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Rationalization

Offers self justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions.

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Displacement

Shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, redirecting anger toward a safer target.

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Neo Freudian's

Personality is influenced by the unconscious, but this is not all biological – the conscious mind and social factors help shape personality.

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Collective unconscious

Contained uncommon reservoir of images derived from our species past. That is why many cultures share certain myths and images such as the mother as a symbol of nurturance.

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Karen Horney

Believed in the social aspects of childhood growth and development. She countered Freud's assumption that women have week super egos and suffer penis envy.

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Projective test

Evaluating personality from an unconscious mind perspective requires the psychological instrument that would reveal the hidden unconscious mind.

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Rorschach inkblot test

The most widely used projective test with a set of 10 inkblots that was designed by Hermann Rorschach. It's seeks to identify peoples inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blocks.

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Thematic apperception test

Developed by Henry Murray, somatic apperception test is a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.