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Flashcards in Module 45/46 Deck (19):
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Humanistic psychology

Psychologists wanted to focus on healthy people and how to help them strive to be all they can be, or fulfill their potential.

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Humanistic psychologists

Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers.

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Self actualization

Maslow proposed that we as individuals are motivated by a hierarchy of needs. Starting with psychological needs we try to reach the state of self actualization by fulfilling our potential.

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Unconditional positive regard

Carl Rogers also believed in individuals self actualization tendencies. Unconditional positive regard was an attitude of acceptance of others amidst their failings.

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Defensive self-esteem

Fragile and egotistic.

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Secure self-esteem

Less fragile and less dependent on external evaluation.

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Personality inventories

Questionnaires designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors assessing several traits at once.

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Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory

The most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests originally developed to identify emotional disorders.

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Personality trait

The characteristics of a person.

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The big five factors

Conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and extroversion.

C-A-N-O-E

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Social – cognitive perspective

Bandura believes that personality is the result of an interaction that takes place between a person and his social context.

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Reciprocal determinism

Personality is the result of an interaction that takes place between a person and their social context.

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Reciprocal influences

Behavior, cognition, and environment.

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External locus of control

Refers to the perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fate.

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Internal locus of control

Refers to the perception that we can control our own fate.

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Learned helplessness

When unable to avoid repeated aversive events, an animal or human learns hopelessness.

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Positive psychology

Aims to discover and promote conditions that enable individuals and communities to thrive.

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Positive psychology and humanistic psychology

Positive psychology like humanistic psychology attempts to foster human fulfillment. Focuses on three components or pillars: positive emotions, positive character, and positive groups or cultures.

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Evaluating the social cognitive perspective

Critics say that social cognitive psychologists pay a lot of attention to the situation and pay less attention to the individual, his unconscious mind, and his emotions and his genetics.