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Flashcards in Module 9 Deck (24):
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Infancy and childhood

Infancy and childhood span from birth to teenage years. During these years, the individual grows physically, cognitively, and socially.

1

Gross motor development

Large muscle development.

2

Fine motor development

Small muscle development.

3

Cognitive development

Piaget believed that the driving force behind intellectual development is our biological development of mixed experiences with the environment. Our cognitive development is shipped by errors we make.

4

Schemas

Schemas are mental mold into which we pour our experiences.

5

Assimilation

Involves incorporating new experiences into our current understanding or schema.

6

Accommodation

The process of adjusting a schema and modifying it.

7

Cognitive development

The ways in which a child thinking and reasoning change and grow.

8

Sensorimotor stage

Experiencing the world through senses and actions like looking touching mouthing and grasping.

9

Preoperational stage

Representing things with words and images; use intuitive rather than logical reasoning.

10

Concrete operational stage

Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations.

11

Formal operational stage

Abstract reasoning becomes apparent.

12

Object permanence

Objects that are out of sight are also out of mind.

13

Egocentrism

The inability of the preoperational child to take another's point of view.

14

Conservation

The principle of the property such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.

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Reflecting on Piaget's theory

Development is a continuous process. Children express their mental abilities and operations at early ages. Formal logic is a smaller part of cognition.

16

Social development

Development of a person's behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons and their social context.

17

Stranger anxiety

Fear of strangers and develops around eight months. This is the age at which infants form schemas for familiar faces and cannot assimilate a new face.

18

Insecure attachment

Harlow studies show that monkeys experience great anxiety if there terrycloth mother was removed.

19

Secure attachment

They explore their environment happily in the presence of their mothers. When mother leaves they show distress.

20

Self-concept

A sense of one's identity and personal worth emerges gradually around six months.

21

Authoritarian

Parents impose rules and expect obedience. Corporal punishment and spanking are present.

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Permissive

Submit to children's desires, make few demands, anduse little punishment. Parent is Friend to child rather than limit setter.

23

Authoritative or Democratic

Both demanding and responsive, parents are in rolls of authority but not dictator. Parents set rules, but explain reasons and encourage open discussion and input.