Flashcards in Module 9 Deck (24):
Infancy and childhood
Infancy and childhood span from birth to teenage years. During these years, the individual grows physically, cognitively, and socially.
Gross motor development
Large muscle development.
Fine motor development
Small muscle development.
Piaget believed that the driving force behind intellectual development is our biological development of mixed experiences with the environment. Our cognitive development is shipped by errors we make.
Schemas are mental mold into which we pour our experiences.
Involves incorporating new experiences into our current understanding or schema.
The process of adjusting a schema and modifying it.
The ways in which a child thinking and reasoning change and grow.
Experiencing the world through senses and actions like looking touching mouthing and grasping.
Representing things with words and images; use intuitive rather than logical reasoning.
Concrete operational stage
Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations.
Formal operational stage
Abstract reasoning becomes apparent.
Objects that are out of sight are also out of mind.
The inability of the preoperational child to take another's point of view.
The principle of the property such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.
Reflecting on Piaget's theory
Development is a continuous process. Children express their mental abilities and operations at early ages. Formal logic is a smaller part of cognition.
Development of a person's behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons and their social context.
Fear of strangers and develops around eight months. This is the age at which infants form schemas for familiar faces and cannot assimilate a new face.
Harlow studies show that monkeys experience great anxiety if there terrycloth mother was removed.
They explore their environment happily in the presence of their mothers. When mother leaves they show distress.
A sense of one's identity and personal worth emerges gradually around six months.
Parents impose rules and expect obedience. Corporal punishment and spanking are present.
Submit to children's desires, make few demands, anduse little punishment. Parent is Friend to child rather than limit setter.