Flashcards in Module 30 Deck (21):
Our spoken, written, or gesture to word, it is the way we communicate meaning to ourselves and others.
The smallest distinctive sound unit in the spoken language.
Bat, has three phonemes. B-a-t
Chat, has three phonemes. Ch-a-t
The smallest unit that carries meaning may be a word or a part of the word.
Milk = milk
Pumpkins = pump-kin-s
Phonemes: basic sounds.
Morphemes: smallest meaningful units.
Words: meaningful units.
Phrase: composed of two or more words.
Sentence: composed of many words or infinite.
Set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences.
Semantic real tells us that adding – ED to the word laugh means that it happened in the past.
The rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences.
Children learn their native languages much before learning to add 2+2.
We learn on average 3500 words a year, amassing 60,000 words by the time we graduate high school.
Beginning at four months, the infant spontaneously utters various sounds like ah-gooo. Babbling is not imitation of adult speech.
Babbling stage part two
Beginning at 10 months, the babbling comes to resemble the characteristic sounds and intonations of our household language.
Beginning at around the first birthday, a child starts to speak one word and makes family adults understand him. The word dog he may mean look at the dog out there.
Two words stage
Before the second year, a child starts to speak into word sentences. This form of speech is called telegraphic speech in which the child speaks like a telegram.
After telegraphic speech, children start ordering longer phrases, with syntactical sense and by early elementary school there enjoying humor.
B. F. Skinner believed that language development can be explained on the basis of learning principles, such as Association, imitation, and reinforcement.
Inborn universal grammar
Norm Chomsky opposed Skinners ideas and suggested that rate of language acquisition is so fast that it cannot be explained through learning principles, and thus most of it was inborn.
Benjamin wharf suggested that language determines the way we think. for example, he noted, did not have past tense for verbs therefore Hopis could not readily think about the past.
The ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
And research studies, intelligence is whatever the intelligence tests measure, which tends to be school smarts.
Viewing an abstract and material concept as if it were a concrete thing.
Controversies about intelligence
Is intelligence a single overall ability or several specific abilities?
With modern neuroscience techniques can we locate and measure intelligence within the brain?
The idea of the general intelligence exists comes from the work of Charles Spearman who developed the factor analysis approach and statistics.
A critic of Spearman, analyzed his subjects not on the single scale of general intelligence, but on seven clusters of primary mental abilities.