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Flashcards in Portugal Deck (111):
1

Portugal is the world's __th largest producer of wine and the world's __th for consumption.

11th largest, 7th for consumption.

2

Port goes through mutage. What's mutage?

arresting the fermentation of wines with brandy while sugar is still present

3

The Portuguese government created the Companhia Geral dos Vinhos do Alto Douro, or Douro Wine Company, in reaction to what?

Fraudulent Ports that were pumped into the English market in the mid-1750s. They wanted to eliminate fraud and so they delineated the Port region, installed regulatory measures, and formally established the boundaries and practices of the Douro appellation in 1756.

4

The Douro Wine Company developed a methodology for grading Port vineyards and authorized each individual farmer’s production allotment relative to the vineyard’s grade. Explain.

Between 1758 and 1761, the 335 best vineyards were classified as feitoria and marked with stones, signifying fruit reserved for the English market. Lesser vineyards (rama) provided domestic wines. The Douro Wine Company regulated grape prices, fixed pricing on the finished wines, managed exports and monopolized the sale of Portuguese brandy (aguardente) used in the fortification process.

5

Who manages the Port appellation and regulations today?

the government-run Douro Port Wine Institute (IVDP).

6

What was the one DOC that was spared phylloxera?

Colares, near Lisbon.

7

In 1937, the Junta Nacional do Vinhos was founded. What did it do?

It revamped the Portuguese wine industry and consolidating small vineyards into a network of larger co-operatives. Ultimately, the quality of wine suffered. So when Portugal joined the EU in 1986 the co-operatives lost their monopolistic power, and government grants and foreign investment began to pour into the country. Many small estates (quintas) severed their ties with co-operatives and started making their own wines. Portugal devised a new appellation system in line with EU standards, designating Regiões Demarcadas as Denominação de Origem Controlada (DOC). In late 2009, the DOCs were additionally classified as Denominação de Origem Protegida (DOP), in order to maintain EU protection.

8

To maintain eligibility for protection in the EU, Portugal has broadly reclassified its quality wines as either Denominação de Origem Protegida (DOP) or Indicação Geogràfica Protegida (IGP).

DOP is the superior classification and it includes all Denominação de Origem Controlada (DOC) wines.

9

All IGP wines must include a minimum __% of grapes grown in the stated region.

85%

10

What are the 14 fourteen IGPs in Portugal?

Minho

Transmontano

Duriense

Terras do Dão

Terras de Cister

Terras da Beira

Beira Atlântico

Tejo

Lisboa

Alentejano

Península de Setúbal

Algarve

Terras Madeirenses

Açores

11

What does it mean when an IGP or DOP wine is labeled 'garrafeira' ("private wine cellar")?

It indicates a minimum period of aging prior to release.

Tinto (red) garrafeira wines must age for a minimum 30 months, including at least 12 months in bottle.

Branco (white) and rosado garrafeira wines must age for a minimum 12 months with at least 6 in bottle.

The vintage garrafeira Port style as pioneered by Niepoort has a separate connotation: following a few years’ aging in barrels, the Port is matured for a period of at least eight years in glass demijohns.

12

What does Reserva indicate on a sparkling bottle of wine?

A minimum period of 12 months on the lees prior to dégorgement.

13

What is the word for grape in Portugal?

Casta.

14

What is the most widely grown red casta in Portugal?

Castelão, which is full-bodied and tannic with meaty, red-fruit aromas.

15

What is Portugal's finest red casta?

Touriga Nacional -- it accounts for approximately 10% of the nation’s vineyard acreage.

16

The casta Jaen is which grape in Spain?

Mencía -- its low-yielding vine produces extremely small berries, valued for their extraction potential and concentration in the red table blends of Dão, Douro, and Alentejo.

17

Name two synonyms for Touring Nacional.

Bical Tinto

Mortágua Preto

18

What are some other red castas to know in Portugal?

Alfrocheiro

Trincadeira (Tinta Amarela)

Baga Aragonez (Tinta Roriz, known as Tempranillo in Spain)

19

What is the most planted white casta in Portugal?

Fernão Pires, known as Maria Gomes in Bairrada.

It is early ripening and aromatic, but it is prone to oxidation and low acidity.

20

What are some other white castas to know in Portugal?

Encruzado (mostly in the Dão)

Arinto (shows great from Bucelas)

Antão Vaz (aromatic; important in Alentejano)

Alvarinho (Vinho Verde)

Sercial (Madeira, aka Esgana Cão on the mainland)

21

What is the traditional trellising system in Vinho Verde/Minho?

Enforcado, where the vines are trained high off the ground.

The probability of fungal disease in the wet climate is thus lessened, but only about 10% of the vines today are trained this way.

22

What is the largest DOP in Portugal?

Vinho Verde -- represents 15% of the nation’s total vineyard acreage, producing red, white, and rosado wines from an assortment of grapes.

Gentle slopes of shallow granitic soils are predominant, although steeper, terraced vineyards are common in the mountains further inland.

23

What are other white castas used in Vinho Verde?

Trajadura (Treixadura)

Avesso

Pedernã (Arinto)

Alvarinho

24

Red wines from Vinho Verde are also pétillant -- how do they get their sparkle?

Malolactic fermentation in the bottle. The whites are lightly force-carbonated.

25

The wines from Transmontano IGP are typically:

Ripe and full-bodied because the region is dry, hot, and mountainous. There are some cooler, high altitude vineyards.

26

5 important red castas in Transmontano IGP (think Port since the Douro used to be included in this appellation prior to the creation of Duriense):

Touriga Nacional

Tinta Roriz

Bastardo (Trousseau)

Touriga Francesa

Trincadeira

27

6 important white castas in Transmontano IGP:

Fernão Pires

Síria

Viosinho

Gouveio

Malvasia Fina

Rabigato

28

Duriense IGP has 2 DOPs:

Douro DOP (Portugal's first demarcated wine region)

Porto DOP

29

What are the 2 mountain ranges in the Douro?

Marão and Montemuro - lots of granite and schist

30

What is the climate of the Douro?

Continental

- it becomes progessively drier towards the Spanish border

31

The Douro becomes progressively more humid or dry toward the Spanish border?

Drier.

32

Douro DOP dry wines have 3 sub-zones:

Baixo Corgo (to the west; highest density of plantings)

Cima Corgo (highest total vineyard acreage)

Douro Superior (stretches to the Spanish border, is the largest, most arid, and most sparsely planted region in Douro)

33

What does licoroso mean?

Fortified, usually seen as Moscatel do Douro (grape is Moscatel Galego).

34

4 important white castas in Douro DOP:

Malvasia Fina, Viosinho, Rabigato, and Gouveio

35

5 important red castas in Douro DOP:

Touriga Nacional, Touriga Franca, Tinta Roriz, Tinta Cão, and Tinta Barroca

36

In the Douro, reserva wines must achieve a minimum alcohol of:

11.5% for white (must be aged for six months) and rosado 12% for red (must be aged for 1 year)

37

Does the Douro DOP make sparkling or late harvest wines?

Yes - Espumanto do Douro and Colheita Tardia

38

In the past, how would Port casks travel downriver?

They would travel in ships from Pinhão in the Cima Corgo downriver to Vila Nova de Gaia, a suburb of Oporto for maturation in their lodges. Until 1986, all Port wines were required by law to be aged and shipped from Vila Nova de Gaia.

39

What changed with Port aging and travel after Portugal joined the EU in 1986?

A new generation of small quintas are now able to produce and ship Port and table wines from their premises in the Douro. The 1990s witnessed the birth of a number of smaller estates.

40

Declared Port vintages from 1970:

1970 1975 1977

1980 1982 1983 1985

1991 1992 1994 1997

2000 2003 2007 2008 2009 2011

41

Top Port producers and their single quintas:

CHURCHILL'S - Quinta do Agua Alta

COCKBURN'S - Quinta dos Canais and Quinta do Tua DOW'S - Quinta do Bomfim

FERREIRA - Quinta do Porto

FONSECA - Quinta do Panascal

GRAHAM'S - Quinta dos Malvedos

KOPKE - Quinta do São Luiz

NIEPOORT - Quinta do Passaduoro

QUINTA DO VESUVIO - Quinta do Vesuvio

QUINTA DO NOVAL - Quinta do Silval

RAMOS PINTO - Quinta do Bom Retiro

SANDEMAN - Quinta do Vau

SMITH WOODHOUSE - Quinta da Madalena

TAYLOR-FLADGATE - Quinta de Vargellas

WARRE’S - Quinta da Cavadinha

42

All Port wines must reach a minimum RS/L:

17.5g

43

Aging requirements for Vintage Port:

Wines must be bottled by July 30 of the third year after harvest. Wines may be sold from May 1 of the second year after harvest.

44

Aging requirements for LBV:

Wines are aged in cask for at least four years and bottled before December 31 of the sixth year after harvest. LBV wines additionally aged for 3 years in bottle may carry the designation "Envelhicido em garrafa," or bottle-matured.

45

Aging requirements for Colheita:

Tawny wines from a single vintage aged in cask for a minimum of 7 years.

46

Aging requirements for 10/20/30/+40 Years Old:

Wines that are 10-30 years old may be labeled "Velho"; wines that are over 40 years old may be labeled "Muito Velho" (very old).

47

Aging requirements for Crusted:

This term indicates that the wine has been matured and has left sediment in the bottle.

48

Port aging requirements for Reserva/Reserve:

This term implies greater quality when used for "Ruby" Port but it does not carry any minimum aging requirement. If accompanied by the term "Tawny" the wine must have been cask-aged for at least 7 years.

49

Terras do Dão IGP has 2 DOPs:

Dão DOP (hot and dry; some great dry reds based on Touriga Nacional)

Lafões DOP

50

Terras de Cister has 1 DOP and it's known for:

Távora-Varosa DOP (center of sparkling wine production)

51

Terras da Beira IGP has 1 DOP with 3 sub-zones:

Beira Interior DOP

Beira Castelo Rodrigo

Cova da Beira

Pinhel

52

Alentejano IGP has 1 DOP and 8 sub-zones:

what is its climate?

what does it have a lot of?

Alentejo DOP (Trincadeira grape dominates)

Portalegre (northernmost; cool, granitic slopes)

Moura

Granja-Amareleja

Évora

Vidigueira

Reguengos

Redondo

Borba

- arid climate, lots of cork trees

53

Algarve IGP has 4 DOPs:

Lagos DOP

Portimão DOP

Lagoa DOP

Tavira DOP

54

Península de Setúbal IGP has 2 DOPs.  What's the climate?

Setúbal DOP

Palmela DOP

Mediterranean

55

Lisboa IGP has 9 DOPs:

Encostas de Aire DOP

Óbidos DOP

Alenquer DOP

Arruda DOP

Torres Vedras DOP

Lourinhã DOP (produces only aguardiente)

Bucelas DOP

Carcavelos DOP

Colares DOP

56

Tejo IGP has 1 DOP which as 6 sub-zones:

 

what are the dominant grapes in Tejo?

DoTejo DOP (Castelão and Fernão Pires dominate) Coruche

Chamusca

Cartaxo

Santarém

Tomar

Almeirim

57

Beira Atlântico IGP has 1 DOP and 1 sub-zone:

Bairrada DOP

- Terras do Sicó

58

Madeirenses IGP has 2 DOPs:

Madeira DOP (fortified)

Madeirense DOP (unfortified white, red or rosé)

59

Dão DOP has 7 sub-zones:

Serra da Estrela (named for Portugal’s highest mountain range)

Alva

Besteiros

Castendo

Silgueiros

Terras de Azurara

Terras de Senhorim

60

Is Dão just reds or are there other wines produced there?

The Dão also makes white, rosado and espumante.

61

The main red casta in Bairrada is:

Baga - it thrives in the barros (clay) - and it must be at least 50% of reds from the region.

62

What are the two estuaries in Península de Setúbal?

Tagus and Sado estuaries

63

What climate is Península de Setúbal?

Mediterranean

64

Palmela DOP comprises two distinct areas:

Low-lying, sandy plains spreading eastward (Castelão), and the clay-limestone lower slopes of the Arrabida Mountains.

Fernão Pires and Arinto grow here.

65

Vinhos licoroso of Setúbal:

Sweet white (minimum 67% Moscatel de Setúbal [Muscat d’Alexandria) Red fortified wines (minimum 67% Moscatel Roxo)

The wine may be labeled by varietal if either grape comprises a minimum 85% of the blend.

Aged min 18 mos, up to 5 years before release

Min 16% abv, Max 22%

66

What are the two islands of Madeira?

Madeira and Porto Santo

67

What is the minimum combined percentage of Castelão and Preto Martinho required for Carcavelos DOP wines?

75%

68

White, red, rosado, and sparkling wines may be released as Douro DOP. True or False?

True

69

Ramisco, planted on its own rootstock, is the dominant red grape in the ___ DOP.

Colares

70

Where is Alta Estremadura?

Lisboa

71

What is the scientific name for cork trees?

Quercus suber

72

Tinta Amarela is aka:

Trincadeiro

73

Arinto is aka:

Pedernã

74

Fernão Pires is aka:

Maria Gomes

75

Sercial is aka:

Esgana Cão

76

What grape comprises a minimum 15% of all Dão Nobre Branco wines?

Encruzado

77

Dão Red Classifications, Minimum ABV, Minimum Aging:

Tinto 11% - cannot be released before May 15 of the year following the harvest

Tinto Reserva 11.5% - 24 months

Tinto Garrafeira 11.5% - 36 months (including 12 months in bottle)

Tinto Nobre 12% - 36 months

Tinto Nobre Reserva 12.5% - 42 months

Tinto Nobre Garrafeira 12.5% - 48 months (including 18 months in the bottle)

78

Dão White Classifications, Minimum ABV, Minimum Aging:

Branco 11% - none

Branco Reserva 11.5% - 6 months

Branco Garrafeira 11.5% - 12 months (including 6 in the bottle)

Branco Nobre 11.5% - 12 months

Branco Nobre Reserva 12% - 12 months

Branco Nobre Garrafeira 12% - 18 months (including 9 months in the bottle)

79

What are the DOPs of the Azores?

Q image thumb

Pico - fortified (island called Pico, has volcano).  Verdelho, Arinto and Terrantez.  16% min abv, 36 mos in wood.

Biscoitos - fortified (island called Terceira).  Verdelho, Arinto, Terrantez.  16% min abv, 36 mos in wood.

Graciosa - dry table wine.  Min abv 10.5%

80

Vinhos ao Roda

vs.

Vinhos Canteiro

Vinhos ao Roda - Madeira wines that had undergone the round trip (torna viagem) in a ship --> more expensive

 

Vinhos Canteiro - Madeira wines matrued on the island

81

Terras Madeirenses IGP:

what are the 2 islands called?

what are the 2 DOPs?

what is Madeira's regulatory body?

2 islands: Madeira and Porto Santo

2 DOPs: Madeira (fortified) and Madeirense (unfortified, can be white, red or rosé)

Regulatory body: IVBAM

82

List some Madeira production companies.

Henriques and Henriques - founded in 1850

HM Borges - founded in 1877

Barbeito - founded in 1946

Faria and Filhos - founded in 1949

 

83

Vinho Verde's most heaviliy planted white grape?

Loureiro

others: Trajadura, Avesso, Pedernã (Arinto), Albariño

84

What is the training system in Minho/Vinho Verde?

Enforcado

- trained high off the ground.  This decreased the probability of fungal disease, but only 10% of vines today are trained this way.

85

Which DOP is the largest in Portugal?

Vinho Verde DOP

- represents 15% of Portugal's total acreage

- makes red, white and rosado with lots of grapes

- gentle slopes with granitic soils

86

What is the climate in Minho/Vinho Verde?

Cool, rainy, Atlantic influenced

- grey rot can be problematic

87

What is the most widely planted red casta in Portugal?

Castelão

- full bodied, tannic and meat with red fruit tones

88

In the past, Port casks would travel from ___ in the Cima Corgo downriver to ___, a suburb of Oporto, for maturation.

from Pinhão to Vila Nova de Gaia

This changed in 1986 - now new generation of small quintas can produce and ship Port and table wines from their premises.

89

What does 'Grande Reserva' mean on a Portuguese wine label?

It means that the wine met the criteria to be labeled Reserva AND it scored exceptionally well in a blind tasting analysis by the IVDP.

90

What are the minimum ABV levels for standard wines in the Douro?  For Reserva?  What are the aging requirements for Reservas?

Standard min - white and rosé: 10.5% red: 11%

 

Reserva min - white and rosé: 11.5% red 12%

 

white reserva min aging - 6 mos

red reserva min aging - 1 year

91

What is the signature red grape of the Dão DOP?

What is the growing season like?

 

Touriga Nacional

Hot and dry

92

What are the 3 mountain ranges that shelter the Dão DOP?

Serra do Caramulo

Serra da Estrela

Serra da Nave

93

Vinho Verde's 9 subones?

min abv?

abv still wines: 8%

from specific subzones (except Sousa): 9%

abv for espumante: 10%

North to South

Monção e Melgaço

Lima

Cávado

Basto

Ave

Sousa

Amarante

Baião

Paiva

94

What does Garrafeira mean on a label?

 "Private Wine Cellar"

If produced as a vintage dated DOP or IGP, Portuguese table wines must be labeled as Garrafeira.

- Reds must be aged min 30 mos, incl. 12 in bottle

- Whites and Rosé must be aged min 12 mos, at least 6 mos in btl

- Port: a few years' aging in barrel followed by 8 years in glass demi-johns

95

IGP wines are labeled as what in Portugal?

If an IGP is on the label, what % must be from that IGP?

labeled as Vinhos Regional

85%

96

When did phylloxera hit Portugal?

1867 in the Douro

97

What are 2 synonyms for Tourigal Nacional?

Bical Tinto

Mortágua Preto

98

Beira Atlântico has 1 DOP - what is it?  What is its designated subzone?

Bairrada DOP

- subzone: Terras do Síco

- reds must be min 50% Baga

- Bairrada makes mostly red, white, rosé, spk, and aguardiente

- mild and rainy climate

- if a vintner achieves min 12.5% abv, can label Bairrada Clássico

 

99

In Madeira, ___ and ___ are harvested last and separated from their skins prior to fermentation.

 

___ and ___ are harvested first and may undergo a short skin fermentation.

Sercial and Verdelo hervested LAST

Boal and Malmsey harvested FIRST

100

In Port, Vinhos ao Alta is ___

and

Patamares is ___.

Vinhos ao Alta are vines planted in vertical rows leading directly up the slopes (non-traditional).

 

Patamares are wider terraces that can be navigated by a tractor (common).

101

Port grapes were traditionall foot-crushed and fermented in low, open granite troughs called ___.

Lagares.  The goal was to maximize color and extraction.

102

3 types of companies involved in the Madeira wine trade:

  1. Production Companies.  They make the wine; currently about 8.  Know Justino's.
  2. Shipping Companies.  They trade the wine; based in London.  They'll select wines from a producer who then bottles is under shipper's brand, e.g Broadbent.
  3. Partidistas.  They store the wine and sell it at maturity to other traders.

103

What is a pipe?

The traditional barrel used for both aging and shipping Port wine.

Vary in size: Douro is 550L, Villa Nova de Gaia 620L.

534.24L is the size of a pipe used for shipping Port, althogh pipes for shipping Madeira and Marsala are smaller.

 

104

What does it mean when an LBV Port is labeled Envelheado em Garrafa?

It means the wine saw an additional minimum 3 years of bottle aging.

105

Madeira grapes and their synonyms

Sercial - Esgana Cão

Verdelho - Gouveio

Boal - Malvasia Fina

Malmsey - Malvasia Candida, Malvasia Branca de São Jorge

106

What is the "law of the third" (lei do tergo)?

The IVDP requires Port houses to restrict sales of Port to 1/3 of the house's total inventory annually.

107

What are the two broad styles of Port?

Ruby - aged 2-3 yrs

Ruby RSV

Vintage - bottled by July 30th 3rd year after harvest

Single Quinta Vintage

LBV - 4-6 yrs in cask, filtered

Tawny

RSV Tawny - aged at least 7 yrs, blend of many vintages

Tawny w/Ind. of Age

Colheita - aged at least 7 years, vintage dated

108

Terraces in Madeira are known as ___.

Poios.

109

Most vineyards on Madeira are trained in a ___ system, with vines suspended on low trellises known as ___, in order to conbat fungal diseases.

Pergola system, trellises called latadas.

110

Red Port grapes

Touriga Nacional

Touriga Francesa

Tinta Roriz

Tinta Cão

Tinta Barroca

Tinta Amarela

Tinta Francisca

Bastardo

Mourisco Tinto

111

White Port grapes

Gouveio

Malvasia Fino

Viosinho

Rabigato

Esgana Cão

Folgasão