Portugal is the world's __th largest producer of wine and the world's __th for consumption.
11th largest, 7th for consumption.
Port goes through mutage. What's mutage?
arresting the fermentation of wines with brandy while sugar is still present
The Portuguese government created the Companhia Geral dos Vinhos do Alto Douro, or Douro Wine Company, in reaction to what?
Fraudulent Ports that were pumped into the English market in the mid-1750s. They wanted to eliminate fraud and so they delineated the Port region, installed regulatory measures, and formally established the boundaries and practices of the Douro appellation in 1756.
The Douro Wine Company developed a methodology for grading Port vineyards and authorized each individual farmer’s production allotment relative to the vineyard’s grade. Explain.
Between 1758 and 1761, the 335 best vineyards were classified as feitoria and marked with stones, signifying fruit reserved for the English market. Lesser vineyards (rama) provided domestic wines. The Douro Wine Company regulated grape prices, fixed pricing on the finished wines, managed exports and monopolized the sale of Portuguese brandy (aguardente) used in the fortification process.
Who manages the Port appellation and regulations today?
the government-run Douro Port Wine Institute (IVDP).
What was the one DOC that was spared phylloxera?
Colares, near Lisbon.
In 1937, the Junta Nacional do Vinhos was founded. What did it do?
It revamped the Portuguese wine industry and consolidating small vineyards into a network of larger co-operatives. Ultimately, the quality of wine suffered. So when Portugal joined the EU in 1986 the co-operatives lost their monopolistic power, and government grants and foreign investment began to pour into the country. Many small estates (quintas) severed their ties with co-operatives and started making their own wines. Portugal devised a new appellation system in line with EU standards, designating Regiões Demarcadas as Denominação de Origem Controlada (DOC). In late 2009, the DOCs were additionally classified as Denominação de Origem Protegida (DOP), in order to maintain EU protection.
To maintain eligibility for protection in the EU, Portugal has broadly reclassified its quality wines as either Denominação de Origem Protegida (DOP) or Indicação Geogràfica Protegida (IGP).
DOP is the superior classification and it includes all Denominação de Origem Controlada (DOC) wines.
All IGP wines must include a minimum __% of grapes grown in the stated region.
What are the 14 fourteen IGPs in Portugal?
Terras do Dão
Terras de Cister
Terras da Beira
Península de Setúbal
What does it mean when an IGP or DOP wine is labeled 'garrafeira' ("private wine cellar")?
It indicates a minimum period of aging prior to release.
Tinto (red) garrafeira wines must age for a minimum 30 months, including at least 12 months in bottle.
Branco (white) and rosado garrafeira wines must age for a minimum 12 months with at least 6 in bottle.
The vintage garrafeira Port style as pioneered by Niepoort has a separate connotation: following a few years’ aging in barrels, the Port is matured for a period of at least eight years in glass demijohns.
What does Reserva indicate on a sparkling bottle of wine?
A minimum period of 12 months on the lees prior to dégorgement.
What is the word for grape in Portugal?
What is the most widely grown red casta in Portugal?
Castelão, which is full-bodied and tannic with meaty, red-fruit aromas.
What is Portugal's finest red casta?
Touriga Nacional -- it accounts for approximately 10% of the nation’s vineyard acreage.
The casta Jaen is which grape in Spain?
Mencía -- its low-yielding vine produces extremely small berries, valued for their extraction potential and concentration in the red table blends of Dão, Douro, and Alentejo.
Name two synonyms for Touring Nacional.
What are some other red castas to know in Portugal?
Trincadeira (Tinta Amarela)
Baga Aragonez (Tinta Roriz, known as Tempranillo in Spain)
What is the most planted white casta in Portugal?
Fernão Pires, known as Maria Gomes in Bairrada.
It is early ripening and aromatic, but it is prone to oxidation and low acidity.
What are some other white castas to know in Portugal?
Encruzado (mostly in the Dão)
Arinto (shows great from Bucelas)
Antão Vaz (aromatic; important in Alentejano)
Alvarinho (Vinho Verde)
Sercial (Madeira, aka Esgana Cão on the mainland)
What is the traditional trellising system in Vinho Verde/Minho?
Enforcado, where the vines are trained high off the ground.
The probability of fungal disease in the wet climate is thus lessened, but only about 10% of the vines today are trained this way.
What is the largest DOP in Portugal?
Vinho Verde -- represents 15% of the nation’s total vineyard acreage, producing red, white, and rosado wines from an assortment of grapes.
Gentle slopes of shallow granitic soils are predominant, although steeper, terraced vineyards are common in the mountains further inland.
What are other white castas used in Vinho Verde?
Red wines from Vinho Verde are also pétillant -- how do they get their sparkle?
Malolactic fermentation in the bottle. The whites are lightly force-carbonated.
The wines from Transmontano IGP are typically:
Ripe and full-bodied because the region is dry, hot, and mountainous. There are some cooler, high altitude vineyards.
5 important red castas in Transmontano IGP (think Port since the Douro used to be included in this appellation prior to the creation of Duriense):
6 important white castas in Transmontano IGP:
Duriense IGP has 2 DOPs:
Douro DOP (Portugal's first demarcated wine region)
What are the 2 mountain ranges in the Douro?
Marão and Montemuro - lots of granite and schist
What is the climate of the Douro?
- it becomes progessively drier towards the Spanish border
The Douro becomes progressively more humid or dry toward the Spanish border?
Douro DOP dry wines have 3 sub-zones:
Baixo Corgo (to the west; highest density of plantings)
Cima Corgo (highest total vineyard acreage)
Douro Superior (stretches to the Spanish border, is the largest, most arid, and most sparsely planted region in Douro)
What does licoroso mean?
Fortified, usually seen as Moscatel do Douro (grape is Moscatel Galego).
4 important white castas in Douro DOP:
Malvasia Fina, Viosinho, Rabigato, and Gouveio
5 important red castas in Douro DOP:
Touriga Nacional, Touriga Franca, Tinta Roriz, Tinta Cão, and Tinta Barroca
In the Douro, reserva wines must achieve a minimum alcohol of:
11.5% for white (must be aged for six months) and rosado 12% for red (must be aged for 1 year)
Does the Douro DOP make sparkling or late harvest wines?
Yes - Espumanto do Douro and Colheita Tardia
In the past, how would Port casks travel downriver?
They would travel in ships from Pinhão in the Cima Corgo downriver to Vila Nova de Gaia, a suburb of Oporto for maturation in their lodges. Until 1986, all Port wines were required by law to be aged and shipped from Vila Nova de Gaia.
What changed with Port aging and travel after Portugal joined the EU in 1986?
A new generation of small quintas are now able to produce and ship Port and table wines from their premises in the Douro. The 1990s witnessed the birth of a number of smaller estates.
Declared Port vintages from 1970:
1970 1975 1977
1980 1982 1983 1985
1991 1992 1994 1997
2000 2003 2007 2008 2009 2011
Top Port producers and their single quintas:
CHURCHILL'S - Quinta do Agua Alta
COCKBURN'S - Quinta dos Canais and Quinta do Tua DOW'S - Quinta do Bomfim
FERREIRA - Quinta do Porto
FONSECA - Quinta do Panascal
GRAHAM'S - Quinta dos Malvedos
KOPKE - Quinta do São Luiz
NIEPOORT - Quinta do Passaduoro
QUINTA DO VESUVIO - Quinta do Vesuvio
QUINTA DO NOVAL - Quinta do Silval
RAMOS PINTO - Quinta do Bom Retiro
SANDEMAN - Quinta do Vau
SMITH WOODHOUSE - Quinta da Madalena
TAYLOR-FLADGATE - Quinta de Vargellas
WARRE’S - Quinta da Cavadinha
All Port wines must reach a minimum RS/L:
Aging requirements for Vintage Port:
Wines must be bottled by July 30 of the third year after harvest. Wines may be sold from May 1 of the second year after harvest.
Aging requirements for LBV:
Wines are aged in cask for at least four years and bottled before December 31 of the sixth year after harvest. LBV wines additionally aged for 3 years in bottle may carry the designation "Envelhicido em garrafa," or bottle-matured.
Aging requirements for Colheita:
Tawny wines from a single vintage aged in cask for a minimum of 7 years.
Aging requirements for 10/20/30/+40 Years Old:
Wines that are 10-30 years old may be labeled "Velho"; wines that are over 40 years old may be labeled "Muito Velho" (very old).
Aging requirements for Crusted:
This term indicates that the wine has been matured and has left sediment in the bottle.
Port aging requirements for Reserva/Reserve:
This term implies greater quality when used for "Ruby" Port but it does not carry any minimum aging requirement. If accompanied by the term "Tawny" the wine must have been cask-aged for at least 7 years.
Terras do Dão IGP has 2 DOPs:
Dão DOP (hot and dry; some great dry reds based on Touriga Nacional)
Terras de Cister has 1 DOP and it's known for:
Távora-Varosa DOP (center of sparkling wine production)
Terras da Beira IGP has 1 DOP with 3 sub-zones:
Beira Interior DOP
Beira Castelo Rodrigo
Cova da Beira
Alentejano IGP has 1 DOP and 8 sub-zones:
what is its climate?
what does it have a lot of?
Alentejo DOP (Trincadeira grape dominates)
Portalegre (northernmost; cool, granitic slopes)
- arid climate, lots of cork trees
Algarve IGP has 4 DOPs:
Península de Setúbal IGP has 2 DOPs. What's the climate?
Lisboa IGP has 9 DOPs:
Encostas de Aire DOP
Torres Vedras DOP
Lourinhã DOP (produces only aguardiente)
Tejo IGP has 1 DOP which as 6 sub-zones:
what are the dominant grapes in Tejo?
DoTejo DOP (Castelão and Fernão Pires dominate) Coruche
Beira Atlântico IGP has 1 DOP and 1 sub-zone:
- Terras do Sicó
Madeirenses IGP has 2 DOPs:
Madeira DOP (fortified)
Madeirense DOP (unfortified white, red or rosé)
Dão DOP has 7 sub-zones:
Serra da Estrela (named for Portugal’s highest mountain range)
Terras de Azurara
Terras de Senhorim
Is Dão just reds or are there other wines produced there?
The Dão also makes white, rosado and espumante.
The main red casta in Bairrada is:
Baga - it thrives in the barros (clay) - and it must be at least 50% of reds from the region.
What are the two estuaries in Península de Setúbal?
Tagus and Sado estuaries
What climate is Península de Setúbal?
Palmela DOP comprises two distinct areas:
Low-lying, sandy plains spreading eastward (Castelão), and the clay-limestone lower slopes of the Arrabida Mountains.
Fernão Pires and Arinto grow here.
Vinhos licoroso of Setúbal:
Sweet white (minimum 67% Moscatel de Setúbal [Muscat d’Alexandria) Red fortified wines (minimum 67% Moscatel Roxo)
The wine may be labeled by varietal if either grape comprises a minimum 85% of the blend.
Aged min 18 mos, up to 5 years before release
Min 16% abv, Max 22%
What are the two islands of Madeira?
Madeira and Porto Santo
What is the minimum combined percentage of Castelão and Preto Martinho required for Carcavelos DOP wines?
White, red, rosado, and sparkling wines may be released as Douro DOP. True or False?
Ramisco, planted on its own rootstock, is the dominant red grape in the ___ DOP.
Where is Alta Estremadura?
What is the scientific name for cork trees?
Tinta Amarela is aka:
Arinto is aka:
Fernão Pires is aka:
Sercial is aka:
What grape comprises a minimum 15% of all Dão Nobre Branco wines?
Dão Red Classifications, Minimum ABV, Minimum Aging:
Tinto 11% - cannot be released before May 15 of the year following the harvest
Tinto Reserva 11.5% - 24 months
Tinto Garrafeira 11.5% - 36 months (including 12 months in bottle)
Tinto Nobre 12% - 36 months
Tinto Nobre Reserva 12.5% - 42 months
Tinto Nobre Garrafeira 12.5% - 48 months (including 18 months in the bottle)
Dão White Classifications, Minimum ABV, Minimum Aging:
Branco 11% - none
Branco Reserva 11.5% - 6 months
Branco Garrafeira 11.5% - 12 months (including 6 in the bottle)
Branco Nobre 11.5% - 12 months
Branco Nobre Reserva 12% - 12 months
Branco Nobre Garrafeira 12% - 18 months (including 9 months in the bottle)
What are the DOPs of the Azores?
Pico - fortified (island called Pico, has volcano). Verdelho, Arinto and Terrantez. 16% min abv, 36 mos in wood.
Biscoitos - fortified (island called Terceira). Verdelho, Arinto, Terrantez. 16% min abv, 36 mos in wood.
Graciosa - dry table wine. Min abv 10.5%
Vinhos ao Roda
Vinhos ao Roda - Madeira wines that had undergone the round trip (torna viagem) in a ship --> more expensive
Vinhos Canteiro - Madeira wines matrued on the island
Terras Madeirenses IGP:
what are the 2 islands called?
what are the 2 DOPs?
what is Madeira's regulatory body?
2 islands: Madeira and Porto Santo
2 DOPs: Madeira (fortified) and Madeirense (unfortified, can be white, red or rosé)
Regulatory body: IVBAM
List some Madeira production companies.
Henriques and Henriques - founded in 1850
HM Borges - founded in 1877
Barbeito - founded in 1946
Faria and Filhos - founded in 1949
Vinho Verde's most heaviliy planted white grape?
others: Trajadura, Avesso, Pedernã (Arinto), Albariño
What is the training system in Minho/Vinho Verde?
- trained high off the ground. This decreased the probability of fungal disease, but only 10% of vines today are trained this way.
Which DOP is the largest in Portugal?
Vinho Verde DOP
- represents 15% of Portugal's total acreage
- makes red, white and rosado with lots of grapes
- gentle slopes with granitic soils
What is the climate in Minho/Vinho Verde?
Cool, rainy, Atlantic influenced
- grey rot can be problematic
What is the most widely planted red casta in Portugal?
- full bodied, tannic and meat with red fruit tones
In the past, Port casks would travel from ___ in the Cima Corgo downriver to ___, a suburb of Oporto, for maturation.
from Pinhão to Vila Nova de Gaia
This changed in 1986 - now new generation of small quintas can produce and ship Port and table wines from their premises.
What does 'Grande Reserva' mean on a Portuguese wine label?
It means that the wine met the criteria to be labeled Reserva AND it scored exceptionally well in a blind tasting analysis by the IVDP.
What are the minimum ABV levels for standard wines in the Douro? For Reserva? What are the aging requirements for Reservas?
Standard min - white and rosé: 10.5% red: 11%
Reserva min - white and rosé: 11.5% red 12%
white reserva min aging - 6 mos
red reserva min aging - 1 year
What is the signature red grape of the Dão DOP?
What is the growing season like?
Hot and dry
What are the 3 mountain ranges that shelter the Dão DOP?
Serra do Caramulo
Serra da Estrela
Serra da Nave
Vinho Verde's 9 subones?
abv still wines: 8%
from specific subzones (except Sousa): 9%
abv for espumante: 10%
North to South
Monção e Melgaço
What does Garrafeira mean on a label?
"Private Wine Cellar"
If produced as a vintage dated DOP or IGP, Portuguese table wines must be labeled as Garrafeira.
- Reds must be aged min 30 mos, incl. 12 in bottle
- Whites and Rosé must be aged min 12 mos, at least 6 mos in btl
- Port: a few years' aging in barrel followed by 8 years in glass demi-johns
IGP wines are labeled as what in Portugal?
If an IGP is on the label, what % must be from that IGP?
labeled as Vinhos Regional
When did phylloxera hit Portugal?
1867 in the Douro
What are 2 synonyms for Tourigal Nacional?
Beira Atlântico has 1 DOP - what is it? What is its designated subzone?
- subzone: Terras do Síco
- reds must be min 50% Baga
- Bairrada makes mostly red, white, rosé, spk, and aguardiente
- mild and rainy climate
- if a vintner achieves min 12.5% abv, can label Bairrada Clássico
In Madeira, ___ and ___ are harvested last and separated from their skins prior to fermentation.
___ and ___ are harvested first and may undergo a short skin fermentation.
Sercial and Verdelo hervested LAST
Boal and Malmsey harvested FIRST
In Port, Vinhos ao Alta is ___
Patamares is ___.
Vinhos ao Alta are vines planted in vertical rows leading directly up the slopes (non-traditional).
Patamares are wider terraces that can be navigated by a tractor (common).
Port grapes were traditionall foot-crushed and fermented in low, open granite troughs called ___.
Lagares. The goal was to maximize color and extraction.
3 types of companies involved in the Madeira wine trade:
- Production Companies. They make the wine; currently about 8. Know Justino's.
- Shipping Companies. They trade the wine; based in London. They'll select wines from a producer who then bottles is under shipper's brand, e.g Broadbent.
- Partidistas. They store the wine and sell it at maturity to other traders.
What is a pipe?
The traditional barrel used for both aging and shipping Port wine.
Vary in size: Douro is 550L, Villa Nova de Gaia 620L.
534.24L is the size of a pipe used for shipping Port, althogh pipes for shipping Madeira and Marsala are smaller.
What does it mean when an LBV Port is labeled Envelheado em Garrafa?
It means the wine saw an additional minimum 3 years of bottle aging.
Madeira grapes and their synonyms
Sercial - Esgana Cão
Verdelho - Gouveio
Boal - Malvasia Fina
Malmsey - Malvasia Candida, Malvasia Branca de São Jorge
What is the "law of the third" (lei do tergo)?
The IVDP requires Port houses to restrict sales of Port to 1/3 of the house's total inventory annually.
What are the two broad styles of Port?
Ruby - aged 2-3 yrs
Vintage - bottled by July 30th 3rd year after harvest
Single Quinta Vintage
LBV - 4-6 yrs in cask, filtered
RSV Tawny - aged at least 7 yrs, blend of many vintages
Tawny w/Ind. of Age
Colheita - aged at least 7 years, vintage dated
Terraces in Madeira are known as ___.
Most vineyards on Madeira are trained in a ___ system, with vines suspended on low trellises known as ___, in order to conbat fungal diseases.
Pergola system, trellises called latadas.
Red Port grapes
White Port grapes