Germany Flashcards Preview

Wine > Germany > Flashcards

Flashcards in Germany Deck (100):
1

Modern German viticulture first appeared in the...

Rheingau.

2

Which anbaugebeit has a higher proportion of Riesling planted than any other?

Rheingau.

3

The Rheingau's sole Bereich is...

Johannisberg Bereich

4

The river that runs through the Rheingau is...

The Rhine River.

5

True or False: The Rheingau is warmer than the Rheinhessen?

True! The Rheingau has less dramatic slopes and warmth from the Rhine River.

6

Soils of the Rheingau:

Upper slope dominated by slate. Lower vineyards (close to the water) are mix of clay, loess, alluvial and red slate. The Rieslings in the Rheingau are more powerful than Rieslings from the Mosel.

7

In what color are Rieslings from the Rheingau bottled?

Brown, aka Rheingauer Flote. Mosel Rieslings are bottled in green bottles.

8

List important Gemeinden and Einzellagen in the Rheingau:

Assmannhausen - Hoellenberg
Rudesheim - Berg Roseneck, Berg Rottland
Geisenheim - Schloss Johannisberg
Johannisberg - Hoelle
Winkel - Schloss Vollrads, Jesuitengarten, Jasensprung
Hattenheim - Pfaffenberg (monopole Schloss Schönborn), Mannberg, Steinberg
Erbach - Marcobrunn
Hochheim am Main - Holle, Kirchenstuck

9

Assmannhausen in the northwest part of the _______ is the center for Pinot Noir production. The best PNs come from the ______ vineyard. _____ _____ is amongst the finest growers here.

NW part of the Rheingau.

Best PNs come from the Hoellenberg vineyard.

One of the finest growers is August Kessler.

10

List important Gemenden and Einzellagen in the Mosel:

Mosel (from south to north)
Trittenheim - Apotheke
Piesport - Goldtropfchen, Domherr
Brauneberg - Juffer, Juffer Sonnenhur
Berkastel - Doctor, Lay
Graach - Domprobst, Josephshofer, Himmelreich
Wehlen - Sonnenhur
Zelting - Sonnenhur
Urzig - Wurzgarten
Erden - Praelat, Treppchen

Saar
Wiltingen - Scharzhofberger
Saarberg - Rauch

Ruwer
Eitelsbach - Karthäuserhofberg
Mertesdorf - Abtsberg, Herrenberg, Bruderberg

11

True or False: The Saar Valley is cooler than the Mittelmosel?

True, due to its higher altitude. Its slates are also less uniform than the Mittelmosel which creates less of a warming effect -- this means the wines typically have higher acidity but in warmer years (2003, 2005) the wines can be exceptional. Fun Fact: Ruwer is ALSO cooler than the Mittelmosel!

12

What did the German Wine Law of 1971 do?

It condensed 30,000 einzelligen into 2600 registered vineyards, each with a minimum site of 5ha.

There were 4 exceptions:
Doctor vineyard in Bernkastel
Kirchenstück and Freundstuck vineyards in Forst (Pfalz)
Schloss Vollrads ortsteil vineyard in Rheingau

13

Liebfraumilch cannot carry a grape name on the label, and it may be blended from vineyards throughout _____

Where is liebfraumilch originally from?

What quality level is liebfraumilch?

What grape is often the largest component?

Rheinhessen, Nahe, Rheingau, and Pfalz

Originated in Rhinehessen

Qualitätswein

Riesling

It must contain at least 18g rs/L.

14

In the late 00s, Germany ranked ____th in world-wide wine production.

7th behind France, Italy, Spain and possibly China.

15

What is a grosslage?

A small group of contiguous vineyards (there are 160).

16

What is an einzellage?

A vineyard (there are roughly 3000 in Germany).

17

What is an alleinbesitz?

List 5 alleinbestiz with the region (and village) they’re located in and producer.

A monopole.

ALL alleinbesitz for Maximin G - monopoles, located in Mertesdorf in the Ruwer
1. Abstberg
2. Herrenberg
3. Bruderberg

Hattenheimer Pfaffenberg of Schloss Schönborn

Two monopoles of ecclesiastical origin exist: Schloss Johannisberg, planted to Riesling since 1720, and the Hattenheimer Steinberg vineyard of Kloster Eberbach

Oberemmeler Hütte in Saar(?) - Von Hövel

18

What is an ortsteil?

List 5 orsteils with the region (and village) they’re located in and producer.

A single estate. They have an option of listing a vyd or not, e.g. Schloss Vollrads. There are roughly 200 in Germany.

19

When was Auslese introduced?

1787.

20

When was the first Eiswein made?

1858.

21

True or False: Each anbaugebeite has its own minimum Ochsle requirements for each authorized grape.

True! Therefore there's a range for each pradikat.

There is no maximum, therefore grapes harvested at higher must weights may be declassified to a lower pradikat, which is common in warmer years.

22

Pradikatswein Rules
1. Wines must carry min. abc of ___%, and ___% for BA, TBA and Eiswein.

2. Winemakers ____ chaptalize.

3. Wines must have an AP number -- what is this?

1. min. abv 7%, 5.5% for BA, TBA and Eiswein.

2. may NOT

3. an AP number is a series of 5 sets of numbers indicating the wine has been approved by a tasting panel.
(1) the location of the examination board, (2) the village in which the wine was produced, (3) the producer, (4) the unique number of the bottling, and (5) the year in which the wine was tested, typically one calendar year after the vintage

23

Germany's 4 quality wine categories:

Wein or Deutscher Wein: (formerly Tafelwein; must be 100% German OR the names of the countries from which the grapes came must be listed on the label)

Landwein: (An IGP category including trocken and halbtrocken wines produced from any of 26 winegrowing regions, known as Landweingebiete)

Qualitätswein: A PDO category, encompassing most of the country’s top dry wines. This category, inclusive of Prädikatswein, covers 96% of German wine production and almost all exports. In light of the low alcohol levels classically achieved by some of Germany’s finest sweet wines, this category requires wines to acquire a minimum 7% alcohol content, rather than the minimum 8.5% mandated by European law

Prädikatswein: A PDO category and a subset of Qualitätswein, encompassing all of the country’s best sweet wines. The lower Prädikate require a minimum 7% acquired alcohol; from Beerenauslese on up, the minimum is reduced to 5.5%.

24

Pradikat Levels and Minimum Öchsle Range (must weight) (minimum must requirements vary by region and variety and declassification is possible, esp in hotter years)

Kabinett - 70-85
Spatlese - 80-95
Auslese - 88-105
Beerenauslese - 110 - 128
Eiswein - 110 - 128
Trockenbeerenauslese - 150-154

25

Erste Lage - requirements, what it means? In which anbaugebiete does it NOT exist?

Grosse Lage - is a Grand Cru vineyard, and on the bottle they drop the village but keep the vineyard.

"first site" or "1er Cru" Must be:
- hand harvested, max 60 hL/ha
- minimum must weight to Spatlese
- if dry, denote with GG (Grosses Gewachs)
- if sweet, pradikat levels used
- as of 2012, will indicate 1er Cru, not Grand Cru sites
- the 1+grape cluster icon will be applied to Grosse Lage quality
- does not exist in Mosel, Ahr, and Rheinhessen

26

Grosses Gewächs - explain.

- legally they're considered trocken
- may not have >9g/L RS
- in Rheingau aka Erstes Gewächs (established by Charta in 1999; it's a legally authorized term; for dry wines in specific sites, for Riesling and Pinot Noir only)
- whites may not be released before Sept 1 year following harvest
- einzellage listed, village name dropped
- A Grosses Gewächs wine is therefore a dry wine from a Grosse Lage vineyard, harvested at a minimum level of ripeness equivalent to Spätlese

27

VDP Classification & Maximum Yields

Grosse Lage: "Grand Cru," 50 hL/ha (usually just vineyard)

Erste Lage: "Premier Cru," 60 hL/ha (usually village and vineyard)

Ortswein - Village, 75 hL/ha - multiple vineyards in a single village and is typically labeled with the village name and/or a statement of soil, such as Kalkstein (limestone), Blauen Schiefer (blue slate), or Buntsandstein (red sandstone)

Gutswein - Regional, 75 hL/ha (usually on the label is the anbaugebiet and a fantasy name)

28

What does 'goldkapsel' mean in the Mosel?

It generally indicates additional sweetness due to a higher must weight. It's most common in Auslese bottlings.

A Lange Goldkapsel is a longer gold capsule. Sometimes the length and capsule color may be the only difference in price and character.

29

The Mosel River emerges from the _____ in _____ and flows eastward into Germany, joining its tributaries, the ___ & ___, until it merges with the ___ at ____, making the end in the Mosel Valley.

emerges from the Vosges Mts. in France and joins the Saar and Ruwer tributaries, merges with the Rhine in Koblenz.

30

The Mosel is divided into 6 Bereiche:

Bernkastel -- this is the largest, aka Middle Mosel
Burg Cochem
Saar
Ruwertal
Obermosel
Moseltor

31

What's special about the Bernkastel Bereiche in the Mosel?

Its soils are mostly blue Devonian slate, which stretches from Trier to Zell: Trittenheim, Piesport, Brauneberg, Bernkastel-Kues, Graach, Wehlen, Zeltingen, Urzig, Erden (Erden, and Urzig have red slate!).

32

What crossing is Dornfelder?

Helfensteiner x Heroldrebe. It's also Germany's 2nd most planted red.

33

Top Mosel producers:

Karthäuserhof (Ruwer)
clemensbusch
Heymann-Lowenstein (Burg Cochem)
Knebel

34

Top Saar producers:

Egon Müller
Schloss-Saarstein
Ziliken
von Hövel
Van Volxem

35

Top Middle Mosel around Bernkastel:

JJ Prüm
Willi Schafer
Selbach-Oster
Dr. Loosen

36

Top Nahe producers:

Emrich-Schönleber
Dönnhoff
Schäfer-Fröhlich
Diel

37

Top Rheingau producers:

August Kessler
Georg Breuer
Robert Weil
Küntsler
Johannes Leitz
Peter Jacob Kuhn
Eva Fricke

38

Top Rheinhessen producers:

Keller
Dreissigacker
Gunderloch
Michael Teschke

39

Top Pfalz producers:

What are the "3 Bs"?

Rebholz
Muller-Catoir
Koehler-Ruprecht
von Winning
Dr. Wehrheim
Friedrich Becker

3 Bs:
Reichsrat von Buhl
Bürklin-Wolf
Bassermann-Jordan

40

Top Franken producers:

Hans Wirsching
Castell
Fürst

41

Are Grosses Gewächs always dry?

Yes -- it's a designation of top-quality dry wines of at least Spätlese ripeness from a specified top site.

42

What's the difference between Classic and Selection? (they were intended to replace trocken and halbtrocken, respectively, though neither really caught on; feinherb now replaces halbtrocken on most labels)

Classic is a dry-tasting wine (max 15g/L RS) for table drinking made from a single grape variety; do not mention a vineyard on the label

Selection is a superior dry-tasting wine (max 12 g/L RS for Riesling, max 9g for other varietals) from a single grape variety and from a single vineyard. Yields are restricted to 60 hl/ha. Must weight for Selection wines must be equivalent to Auslese, and vineyards are hand-harvested. The wines may not be released prior to September 1 of the year following harvest.

43

What's the difference between halbtrocken and feinherb?

Halbtrocken - official term for medium-dry

Feinherb - popular but unofficial term for medium-dry

44

What's the difference between Weingut, Weinkellerei, and Winzergenossenschaft?

Weingut - wine estate

Weinkellerei - wine company

Winzergenossenschaft - wine grower's co-op

45

Top Middle Mosel producers around Piesport:

St. Urbans-Hof
Reichsgraf von Kesselstatt
Reinhold Haart
Julian Haart

46

Top villages and vineyards in Nahe:

Monzingener Halenberg
Schlossböckelheimer Felsenberg
Niederhauser Hermannshöhle

47

In the Rheingau, Hochheim is quite different from the rest of the Rheingau not just because it's on the Main and is physically separate, but also because of the soils. What are the soils?

The sand, loam and loess soils are looser, deeper and warmer than the rest of the Rheingau.

Famous vineyard in Hoccheim are Kirchenstück and Hölle.

48

Erzeugerabfüllung or Gutsabfüllung means:

Estate Bottled

49

2002 VDP Accord in Germany created a 3 rank system:

Grosses Gewächs - great growths
Erstes Gewächs - 1st growths, Rheingau only

Klassifizierte Lagenweine - from a classified site

Gutsweine - proprietary name
Ortswein - from a village or region

50

TBA vs. Eiswein (botrytis):

TBA - Botrytis (Edelfäule) affected grapes

Eiswein - NOT affected by Botrytis; they are left on the vine and picked at 18F or colder, then pressed

51

What does the acronym VDP stand for?
When was the VDP originally established?
What was the VDP’s original name? Why and when was it changed?

Founded in 1910 as Verband Deutscher Naturwein Versteigerer (Association of German Wine Auctioneers).

Now means Verband Deutscher Prädikatsweingüter. 1971

195 (as of the close of 2017) German producers dedicated to high quality, the preservation of a sense of place, and those grape varieties traditionally cultivated within each wine growing region. Members must observe higher minimum must weights and lower maximum yields than permitted by German law. All wines must be estate grown. Hand-harvesting is required for all single vineyard wines and for any Prädikat wines of Auslese level or above. Member estates are identified by the mandatory presence off the VDP’s logo, the Traubenadler, on bottle capsules.

52

Explain the difference between a Grosse Lage and Grosses Gewächs.

Grosse Lage denotes a dry wine from any VDP. Used for Germany's very best vineyard sites.

Grosses Gewächs is a dry wine from a Grosse Lage vineyard.

53

Why is Maximin Grunhäus Abtsberg not a VDP Grosse Lage?

He's in the Ruwer. As of March 2016, he joined the VDP.

54

What is the Mittelrhein Riesling Charta?

What are the quality levels and requirements?

Initiated 1984.

A relatively recent initiative specific to the region is the Mittelrhein-Riesling Charta. Participating winemakers agreed on a unified front label for their bottles, which shows the Charta grape symbol, the names of one of the categories – Handstreich, Felsenspiel and Meisterstück – and the two words: Mittelrhein and Riesling.

Rather than focus on terroir or ripeness category, the Mittelrhein-Riesling Charta promotes flavor profiles:

- Handstreich: light, easy-to-drink, food-friendly
- Felsenspiel: medium, balanced, expressive, good on its own or with a meal
- Meisterstück: full-bodied, quite dry, deeply aromatic and lingering

With this approach, the Charta members avoid the traditional sweet, medium-dry, or dry labels that suggest sugar (and alcohol) levels matter most in wine. Think of the Charta as a new generation of Mittelrhein winemakers jointly re-thinking and re-branding what they think is important about a segment of their Riesling production.

55

What is the major river of each of the following villages:

Bernkastel-Kues –

Wiltingen –

Eitelsbach –

Bacharach –

Nierstein –

Assmanshausen –

Schlossböckelheim –

Sachsen -

Spay –

Walporzheim –

Bernkastel-Kues – Mosel River

Wiltingen – Saar

Eitelsbach – Ruwer

Bacharach – Rhine

Nierstein – Rhine

Assmanshausen – Rhine

Schlossböckelheim – Nahe River

Sachsen - Elbe River

Spay – Rhine

Walporzheim – Ahr

56

Which region of Germany is influenced by the Gulf Stream?

Mosel and Rheingau

57

Match the region with the following producers:
Kloster Eberbach
Toni Jost-Hahnenhof
Ökonomierat Rebholz
Basser-Jordon
Friedrich Becker
Künstler
Weingart
A.J. Adam
Meyer-Näkel
Horst Sauer
von Kesselstadt
Koehler-Ruprecht
Josef Leitz
von Schubert
Matthias Müller
Robert Weil

Kloster Eberbach - Rheingau
Toni Jost-Hahnenhof - Rheingau
Ökonomierat Rebholz - Pfalz
Basser-Jordon - Pfalz
Friedrich Becker - Pfalz
Künstler - Rheingau
Weingart - Mittelrhine
A.J. Adam - Mosel
Meyer-Näkel - Ahr
Horst Sauer - Franken
von Kesselstadt - Mosel (have vyds in M, S, R)
Koehler-Ruprecht - Pfalz
Josef Leitz - Rheingau
von Schubert - Ruwer
Matthias Müller - Mittelrhine
Robert Weil - Rheingau

58

Name 2 regions you might find grey-wacke.
What is it?
Name 3 other countries you can find grey-wacke.

Grey-wacke is a grey sandstone - it's hard and angular with quartz and feldspar.
Ahr,
Wales, Scotland, England

59

Define:
Rotling
Lieblich
Grosslage
Weissherbst

Rotling - German term for wines mixed with red and white grapes, e.g. Schillerwein, specialty of Württemburg.

Lieblich - Semi-sweet, but usually not marked on the bottle.

Grosslage - Group of contiguous vineyards.

Weissherbst - Made of 1 grape variety, lightly pressed, usually pale red, specialty of Württemburg.

60

What is the minimum Prädikat ripeness (in degrees Öchsle) for the following wines:

Mosel Kabinett Riesling

Rheingau Kabinett Riesling

Pfalz Spätlese Riesling

Mosel Spätlese Riesling

Rheingau Spätlese Riesling

Mosel Kabinett Riesling - 70

Rheingau Kabinett Riesling - 73

Pfalz Spätlese Riesling - 85

Mosel Spätlese Riesling - 76

Rheingau Spätlese Riesling - 85

61

What region is Qualitätswein ‘Erste Lage’ a legally codified quality level?

What was the first legal vintage?

What grape varieties may be produced under this designation?

Rheingau
2012
Riesling

62

Name the parent for the following crossings:

Scheurebe

Müller-Thurgau

Rieslaner

Kerner

Scheurebe - Riesling x Bukketrebe (synonym is Sämling 88)

Müller-Thurgau - Riesling x Madeline Royal

Rieslaner - Sylvaner x Riesling

Kerner - Trollinger x Riesling

63

What is Germany’s steepest site and in which village/region is it located?

Bremmer Calmont in Mosel

64

In what region is Koblenz located?

Rhineland (Rheingau)

65

Who founded Kloster Eberbach and when?

Founded in 1136 by St. Bernhard of Clairvaux (Burgundy)

66

Who supposedly produced the first Spätlese, Auslese and Eiswein? Give first vintages for each.

Spätlese - 1775 in Rheingau at Schloss Johannisberg

Auslese - 1787 in Rheingau at Schloss Johannisberg

Eiswein - 1858 (also at Schloss Johannisberg?)

***It is believed that the first post-Roman ice wine was made in Franconia in Germany in 1794.[1] Better documentation exists for an ice-wine harvest in Dromersheim close to Bingen in Rheinhessen on February 11, 1830. The grapes were of the 1829 vintage. That winter was harsh and some wine growers had the idea to leave grapes hanging on the vine for use as animal fodder. When it was noticed that these grapes yielded very sweet must, they were pressed and an Ice wine was produced.
--WIkipedia

67

Where were Ehrenfelser, Bacchus and Kerner developed?

Ehrensfelser was developed in 1929 at Germany's Geisenheim Research Station to replace Riesling in areas with shorter growing seasons.

Bacchus was created by viticulturalist Peter Morio at the Geilweilerhof Institute for Grape Breeding in the Palatinate in 1933.

Kerner was bred in 1929 by August Herold at a plant breeding station in Lauffen in the Württemberg.

68

What is the minimum acquired alcohol level for Prädikatswein?

7%

69

What do the last two digits of the Amtliche Prüfungsnummer indicate?

The first number represents region where the wine was tested.

The second number, which may be two or three digits, represents the particular village within the larger testing region, where the wine was produced.

The third number represents the particular bottler (producer).

The fourth number represents the sequential order that the wine was submitted for testing in this particular year by the producer.)

The fifth number represents the last two digits of the year that the wine was submitted for testing, usually the year after the vintage.

70

As what quality level is most German Sekt categorized?

Sekt b.a.

Sparkling wines made from domestic base wines are identified as “Deutscher Sekt” (German quality sparkling wine) or “Sekt b.A.” (quality sparkling wine psr) on the label. The majority of sekt produced in Germany is made from foreign base wines which are initially imported into Germany as bulk wine and then turned into sparkling wine locally.

71

What is Winzersekt?

It is a vintner's vintage varietal sparkling wine.

Winzersekt must be produced by the traditional or classic method of bottle fermentation. The vintage, varietal and producer's name must appear on the label.

72

What is Trester?

What is Weinhefe?

What does Asbach specialize in?

Trester - spirit or brandy distilled from the pomace; it's like Marc or Grappa.

Weinhefe - a brandy distilled from the lees (it's softer, richer and rounder than Trester).

Asbach specializes in brandy and chocolates.

73

What is the traditional barrel in Rheingau and how many liters does it hold?

Stück, holds 1200L

74

What is the traditional barrel in Mosel and how many liters does it hold?

Fuder, holds 1000L

75

What is the Roter Hang and where is it?

The Roter Hang is a “red hill” of clay and weathered red sandstone (Rotliegendes) on the left bank of the Rhine between the villages of Nierstein and Nackenheim.

It is the one area historically associated with quality winegrowing in the Rheinhessen. It is a slim, east-facing slope reaching 70 to 80% grade, but it is hardly representative of the entire Rheinhessen.

76

What is the most expensive dry Riesling produced in Germany?

Keller's 'G-Max' which he makes from an undisclosed parcel in the Rhienhessen.

77

What are the Rheinhessen's 3 Bereichs?

Bingen
Wonnegau
Nierstein

78

What is Message in a Bottle?

An organization of over two dozen young producers in the region committed to raising the region’s potential and image, internally and internationally.

79

True or False:
There is more Riesling in the Pfalz than in Alsace, or in the whole country of Austria, or Australia, or the United States.

True

80

What are the 2 Bereiche of the Pfalz?

Mittelhaardt-Deutsche Weinstrasse
Südliche Weinstrasse

81

Name 3 Grosse Lage vineyards in Pfalz (each is under 5ha):

Deidesheimer Hohenmorgen
Forster Freundstück
Forster Kirchenstück

82

What are the 3 Bereiche in Franken?

Mainviereck
Maindreieck
Steigerwald

83

_____ and _______ producers from the region have the right to bottle in a Bocksbeutel; ___ producers do not.

Baden and Franken have the right; Württemberg do not.

84

There is only 1 Bereich in Nahe:

Nahetal

but the region consists of at least three distinct, classic subregions renowned for quality Riesling along the Nahe River itself: the Upper, Middle, and Lower Nahe.

85

Baden has 9 Bereiche. Which grapes thrive in Baden?

Weissburgunder, Grauburgunder, and above all, Spätburgunder.

Müller-Thurgau still reigns as the top variety in the south and Gudetel (Chasselas) is still planted.

86

Name a great Pinot Noir producer in Baden:

Bernhard Huber (in Breisgau anbaugebiete)

87

What is Germany’s hottest vineyard?

Ihringer Winklerberg (in Kaiserstuhl Bereiche in Baden, volcanic soil)

88

Württemberg: the most planted grape in this diverse region is Trollinger, aka ___ in Italy.

Schiava

Also planted is Schwarzriesling (Pinot Meunier)

89

2 Bereiche of the Mittelrhein (Riesling):

Loreley
Siebengebirge
- neatly divide the slim Mittelrhein region into southern and northern sectors.

The vast majority of the Mittelrhein’s vineyards and all of its Grosse Lage sites are located within the southern Bereich of Loreley.

90

What is smallest Anbaugebiet in Germany?

Hessische-Bergstrasse

91

What is Piesporter Michelsberg

A Grosslage site covering a huge band of vineyards around the town of Piesport

92

All Qualitätswein and Prädikatswein must carry an A.P. number: True or False?

True

93

Name 3 vineyards in Germany that escaped the minimum five-hectare mandate for single vineyards.

Forster Kirchenstück (Pfalz)
Bernkasteler Doctor (Middle Mosel)
Kiedricher Turmberg (Rheingau)

94

Trocken and GG - both mean dry, but in what regard?

Absent the mention of a Prädikat, the term trocken continues to signify dry wines at the Erste Lage level or below.

For the Grosse Lage category, however, it is replaced by the grander term Grosses Gewächs, or “Great Growth.” A Grosses Gewächs wine is therefore a dry wine from a Grosse Lage vineyard, harvested at a minimum level of ripeness equivalent to Spätlese, identified by the appearance of the trademarked acronym “GG” on the label. Grosses Gewächs white wines may not be released until September 1 of the year after harvest.

95

Prädikatswein Grosse Lage wines may be released as early as May 1 of the year after harvest. True or False?

True

96

As of 2016, the Erste Lage category still does not exist in three Anbaugebiete—Mosel, Ahr, and Rheinhessen. True or False?

True

97

What is Frühburgunder?

A natural mutation genetically identical to Pinot Noir, a rare specialty of Germany. As of 2014, there were 257 hectares in the country. Thicker skinned than Pinot Noir, the grape also ripens about two weeks earlier in the season. Resultant wines are darker in color and fruit expression, with lower acidity. In France, the grape is known as Pinot Noir Précoce or, historically, Pinot Madeleine.

98

Who is the largest single wine producer in Germany?

Hessen State Winery (they own Kloster Eberbach in Rheingau)

99

In Rheingau, two monopoles of ecclesiastical origin:

Schloss Johannisberg, planted to Riesling since 1720, and the Hattenheimer Steinberg vineyard of Kloster Eberbach, enclosed by a wall in 1760.

There's another monopole, Hattenheimer Pfaffenberg, of Schloss Schönborn since the 1600s

100

In the Mosel, which 2 ranges' cold winds are blocked by hill top forests?

Hunsrück and Eifel ranges