When were DOs approved in Spain?
Spanish quality wine levels:
DO Pago - theoretically superior to basic DO. Must surpass requirements typically through low yield and other measure suggestive of quality winemaking. DOCa DO VCIG - Vinos de Calidad con Indicacion Geografica VdLT
When were the Consejos Reguladores established for the major regions of Rioja, Jerez and Malaga?
1930s Franco came to Fascist power after Spain's civil war. Spain was the only country to remain Fascist in Europe post WW!! til his death in 1975.
Why did/does Rioja use American oak (Quercus alba) and not French?
It was an economic decision based on Spain's history of transatlantic colonial trade.
17th C Spanish law barred colonies from...
producing their own wines, which protected Spanish wine exports.
What style of wine is Fondillon?
Rancio style, made from Monastrell. It's made in a solera system but is NOT fortified. It has notes of fruit preserves, almonds, dried flowers and is nutty like sherry but without the alcohol of sherry.
The Phoenicians founded which city in Spain (1100 BCE)?
Cadiz They established the value of wine and viticulture as a commodity in Andalucia.
What are the 3 DO zones of the Basque Country in Spain? What are the grapes?
white: Hondarribi Zuri red: Hondarribi Beltza Getariako Txakolina Bizkaiko Txakolina Arabako Txakolina
Where is the Valdeorras DO and what is the dominant grape?
Valdeorras is the easternmost zone of Galicia. Known for Godello.
Where is the Ribeira Sacra DO and what are the dominant grapes?
Ribeira Sacra is east/inland/upriver from Ribeiro Grapes are Mencia, Treixadura, Godello
What are the 5 sub-regions of Ribeira Sacra?
Amandi Chantada Quiroga-Bibei Riberas do Sil Riberas do Mino
Fun Facts about Riberio DO:
One of Spain's oldest recognized wine regions. Located along the Mino River, east of Rias Baixas Leading grapes are Treixadura and Caino Local specialty is Vino Tostado, a dried grape wine (grapes are hung in the sun to dry)
What are the 5 sub-zones of Rias Baixas?
Ribeira do Ulla (most north)
Val do Salnes
Condado do Tea (these are the most south)
If Val do Salnes or Ribeira do Ulla is on the label, the wine must be a minimum 70% ____.
If O Rosal or Condado do Tea is on the label, the wine must be a minimum 70% ____ and either ___ or ___.
Albarino and either Loureira or Treixadura.
What are the 4 autonomias of Green Spain? What is the climate of Green Spain?
Pais Vasco (Basque Country)
Climate is cooler maritime
What are the 4 DOs of the autonomia of Aragon?
Campo de Borja - mostly Grenache, hot
Calatayud - mostly Grenache Carinena - mostly Grenache, some Carignan (aka Mazuelo)
Somontano - lots of Spanish grapes including Alcanon (white) and Parraleta (red)
What are Rioja's aging requirements?
Joven - no cask aging
Crianza Red - 2 years, min 1 year in oak
Crianza White and Rosé - 2 years, 6 mos of which in oak
Reserva Red - 3 years, 1 year of which in oak
Reserva White and Rosé - 2 years, 6 mos of which in oak
Gran Reserva Red - 5 years, 2 years of which in oak and min 3 years in bottle
Gran Reserva White and Rosé - 4 years, 6 mos of which in oak
What are the aging requirements for Cava?
Cava - min. 9 months on the lees Reserva - min. 15 months on the lees Gran Reserva - min. 30 months on the lees (Brut, Extra Brut, and Brut Nature only)
Permissible grapes in Cava?
Parellada, Macabeo, Xarel-lo, Chardonnay, Subirat Parent (Malvasia) Trépat may only be used for rosé
What are the 3 autonomías of North-Central Spain?
Navarra, La Rioja, and Aragón
- sheltered by the Pyrenées to the NE and Cantabrian to the NW
North-Central Spain is protected by which 2 mountain ranges?
Cantabrian Mountains Pyrenées
What river flows through Rioja?
The Ebro River
What was the first DOC in Spain (in 1991)?
In the 19th century the style of Rioja wines shifted - why?
What are the 5 red grapes in Rioja?
Maturana Tinta, authorized for Rioja in 2007
- the top 4 must make up min 85% or, if destemmed, 95%. Maximum 15% "experimental" grapes allowed, e.g. Monastrell or Cabernet Sauvignon
The 5 red grapes of Rioja must comprise a minimum 85% of the red Rioja blend, or 95% if destemmed -- what can make up the remainder?
“Experimental” grapes such as Monastrell or Cabernet Sauvignon
What are the main white grapes of Rioja?
Viura—known elsewhere as Macabéo—is the dominant white grape, followed by Garnacha Blanca, Malvasía Riojano, and Maturana Blanca.
- these grapes must make up 51%, max 49% CH, SB, Verdejo
Rosados require min 25% red grapes.
What other whites can you blend into white Rioja?
Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, and Verdejo may be used but cannot account for a more than a combined 49% of the blend.
Rioja rosados must be at least 25% red grapes. True or False?
Rioja aging requirement minimums:
Crianza white and rosé: 2 years, 6 months in cask red: 2 years, 1 year in oak Reserva white and rosé: 2 years, 6 months in cask red: 3 years, 1 in oak Gran Reserva white and rosé: 4 years, 6 months in cask red: 2 years in cask, 3 years in bottle
What size must Rioja casks be?
Winemakers sometimes employ carbonic maceration in Rioja Alavesa. True or False?
What's the hottest subzone of Rioja?
What are the main red grapes in Navarra and Aragon?
Do they make white wine in Navarra and Aragon?
Yes, but not much - based on Viura
Navarra contains five subzones:
the higher altitude Valdizarbe
Baja Montaña and Tierra Estella in the north
Ribera Alta in the center of the zone
Ribera Baja in the hot southern sector
Navarra’s three estates that received their own DO Pago appellations:
Señorio de Arínzano and Prado Irache in Tierra Estella Bodegas Otazu in Valdizarbe
Map of Spain
Name the regions
What portion of a Rías Baixas wine must be Albariño to be labelled varietally?
100% - it may not contain any blending grapes.
Which Rías Baixas subzone(s) border Monção e Melgaço?
Condado de Téa borders Monção e Melgaço.
List the DOs of Galicia west to east.
Monterrei (directly south of Ribeira Sacra)
Where are you likely to find Vino Tostado in Galicia? What is it?
Find it in Ribeiro.
Whites: Treixadura, Loureira, Torrontés, Godello y Albariño.
Reds: Caíño, Ferrón, Sousón, Brancellao y Mencía.
12K kg/ha, must declare you're making it by August 30th, dry out the grapes for 90 days. Typical final sugar is 300g/L. Spends minimum 180 days in oak or cherry casks, then a minimum of 90 days in bottle. The entire process will take over a year. The maximum yield is 40 liters of finished product for 100 kilos of properly raisinated grapes.
What does Summúm mean on a wine label?
Ribeira Sacra labeling requirements:
Wine labeled Ribeira Sacra must contain at least 70 percent of the endorsed varieties
The Ribeira Sacra Summum designation is reserved for reds made from a minimum of 85 percent endorsed varieties, 60 percent of which must be mencía. Summum whites must be made entirely from endorsed varieties. Both reds and whites can only be called varietal if composed of 85 percent of said grape.
What are the DOs located along the Minho (from the inland to the Atlantic)?
This is the longest river in Galicia.
DOs from inland to Atlantic are:
Condad de Tea
The two Portuguese subzones that are along the Minho are Monção e Melgaco and Vinho Verde.
What regions of Galicia may produce varietal Godello?
Ribeira Sacra Summúm
Which regions of Galicia may produce varietal Mencía?
What are the 5 subregions of Ribeira Sacra? Which ones lie along the river Sil*?
The Sil is a tributary of the Miño; its source is the Cantabrian Mountains.
Riberas do Miño*
Riberas do Sil*
What's the assemblage for O Rosal and Condado de Tea?
O Rosal: min. 70% combined Albariño and Loureira
Condado do Tea: min. 70% combined Albariño and Treixadura
What non-Galician DO does Valdeorras border?
Bierzo, which is in Castilla y León
What are the DOs of Txakoli? Whis is located inland? Name 2 producers of Txakoli.
Txakoli is in País Vasco.
DOs: Getariako Txakolina, Bizkaiko Txakolina, and Arabako Txakolina.
Arabako is inland.
Grapes are Hondarribi Zuri (white) and Hondarribi Beltza
Rosados are aka Ojo de Gallo and must have 50% Beltza.
Two producers are Ameztoi (Geteriako) and Gorrondona (Bizkaiko).
What is the name of the arid central plateau of Spain?
Which DOs of Spain are located along the Duero River? Name them upriver (inland) to downriver (Porto).
Ribera del Duero
the very northern tip of Tierra del Vino de Zamora
Which 5 DOs of Castilla y León are NOT located along the Duero River?
Bierzo and Tierra de León (up near Galicia)
Which DO of Castilla y León are you most likely to find on a label of wine made from Prieto Picudo?
Tierra de León
When was Vega Sicilia founded? By whom?
1864 by Don Eloy Lecanda y Chaves.
He planted Bdx varietals, PN, and Tempranillo
What's the blend of Único?
Tempranillo, Cab Sauv, Merlot
What two wines are currently produced under the Vega Sicilia label? What 3rd wine was discontinued after the 1998 vintage?
Único - aged 10 years IN OAK prior to release (Unico is only made in vintages that yield fruit considered to be worthy of making this legendary wine - otherwise it's blended into Valbuena; labelled Gran Reserva)
Valbuena 5° - aged 5 years prior to release (Valbuena is made using fruit from the younger vines on the property and goes through a different elevage process to Unico; labelled Reserva)
Valbuena 3° - aged 3 years, discontinued
Who produces Corullón? With which DO is it labelled?
Descendientes de José Palacios (Alvaro and his nephew Ricardo). Bierzo.
Alvaro makes Finca Dofi and L'Ermita in Priorat
Ribera del Duero achieved DO status in:
What styles of wine are authorized for Ribera del Duero DO? What white grape is authorized for DO wines?
Reds and rosados. Albillo is the only white grape grown, and most of it (if it's made into a white) is consumed locally.
What is the required assemblage for white wines simply labelled Rueda DO? What grapes are authorized for varietal white wines?
Simply labelled Rueda require a minimum 50% Verdejo and is often blended with Viura.
Sauvignon Blanc and Palomino Fino are also permitted here.
Who is credited for rejuvinating the Ruedo DO? Where are they located?
Marqués de Riscal. They're located in Rioja and they saw Verdejo as a crisp, fresh counterpart to their Riojas.
What is Rueda Dorado?
A fortified, oxidized dry wine (Sherry-like) from Rueda.
Produced from verdejo and viura grapes, which are fermented underneath a layer of flor and then aged in a solera system.
Toro DO reds require __% minimum Tempranillo. Who are the top producers here?
75% minimum (Toro makes red, white and rosados)
Top producers include Fariña, Numanthia-Termes, and Vega Sicilia’s Bodegas Pintia.
Where are Pesquera and Dehesa la Granja located, respectively?
Pesquera is in Ribera del Duero
Dehesa la Granja is in Tierra del Vino de Zamora DO
Both are owned by Alejándro Fernández (he's basically a rival to Vega Sicilia)
Which DO of Castilla y León borders Portugal? Which DOs of Portugal are on the other side?
On the other side are Tras-os-Montes, Porto and Douro, and Beira Interior
Rioja and Ribera del Duero aging requirements (differences?). And as related to aging requirements in Spain (Noble, Añejo, Viejo)?
NOBLE: 18 months aging in a cask of less than 600 L or bottle
Rioja Crianza vs. Ribera del Duero Crianza
RdD: must age for two years prior to release (including one year in cask)
Rioja: require a total two years of aging prior to release, with a minimum year in oak
AÑEJO: 24 months aging in a cask of less than 600 L or bottle
Rioja Crianza vs. Ribera del Duero Reserva
RdD: must age for three years prior to release (including one year in cask)
Rioja: aged for three years, including one year in oak
VIEJO: 36 months aging, demonstrates marked oxidative character
Rioja Crianza vs. Ribera del Duero Gran Reserva
RdD: wines must age for a minimum two years in cask and three years in bottle, for a total of five years
Rioja: must age for at least two years in cask and three years in bottle
In which Castilla y León DO are you most likely to find wines made from Malvasia, Rufete, and Juan Garcia?
What wine is Peter Sisseck most famous for? What DO designation does it carry? Is the current release of the top wine more or less expensive than Vega Sicilia's Único current release?
Peter is known for Pingus (he also makes Flor de Pingus and Psi). It's from Ribera del Duero. He's been biodynamic since 2001.
Current vintage Pingus is 2013 and goes for rougly $850/btl retail
Current vintage Único is 2007 and goes for roughly $450/btl retail
What DO of Spain borders France? Which AOP in France is it?
Empordà DO is located in the northeastern corner of Spain, bordering Banyuls in Roussillon.
What were the original Clos or Priorat? What vintages were they produced collectively? Under what quality designation were they released?
The five original “Clos” wines of Priorat:
Barbier’s Clos Mogador, Palacios' Clos Dofi, Clos Erasmus, Clos de l’Obac, and Clos Martinet, were released as vino de mesa.
Produced collectively in 1989, then split up are are now produced separately.
What is Vino de Pueblo?
In 2009, Priorat established a village category (Vino de Pueblo) for estate-grown wines from twelve villages, including Gratallops.
What are the subzones of Costers del Segre DO? Which is the smallest*?
Artesa de Segre
Valls du Riucorb
What are the three distinct altitude zones of Penedès?
Baix-Penedès, Medio-Penedès, and Alt-Penedès
Alt - highest altitude, best for Cava
Baix and Medio grow reds and rosados based on Ull de Llebre (Tempranillo), Garnacha and Monastrell
What are the authorized grapes for Cava? Which is only allowed for rosé sparkling?
Parellada, Xarel-lo, Macabéo (Macabeu), and Chardonnay in Alt-Penedès
Cava DO (which covers a style, not a region) wines may be produced from: Parellada, Xarel-lo, Macabeu, Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Garnacha Tinta, Monastrell, Trepat, and Malvasia (Subirat)
Trepat is used for rosé sparkling
Who is the only producer of Cava in southwestern Spain?
Bodegas Inviosa in Tierra de Barros, a subregion of the Ribera del Guadiana DO.
What is the "birthplace" of Cava?
San Sadurní d’Anoia in Alt-Penedès.
Jose Raventós of Codorníu introduced método tradicional sparkling winemaking to Spain in 1872.
What wine of Catalonia recently received the Slow Food "presidia" status? What's the wine? Which two producers are making it?
Malvasia de Sitges, a sweet fortified wine and historical specialty of the region.
Perpetuating it are Vega de Ribes and the charity Hospital de Sant Joan Baptista.
Who are the top two producers of sparkling wine (by volume) in the world? Name 2 wines that each of them produces.
LVMH and Henkell & Söhnlein
LVMH - Krug, Veuve Clicquot, Dom Pérignon, Ruinart, Moët et Chandon
Henkell & Söhnlein - Mionetto, Alfred Gratien
How much sur lie time for Cava, Cava Reserva and Cava Gran Reserva?
Cava - 9 months
Cava Reserva - 15 months
Cava Gran Reserva - 30 months
What is Pansà Blanca?
It's Xarel-lo, which is known as Pansà Blanca in Alella DO, to the northeast of Penedès. It goes into still and Cava.
What are the 2 DOs of the Balearic Islands?
Both are located on Mallorca:
The DO Binissalem, established in 1990, can be found right in the middle of the island of Mallorca, where the Tramuntana mountain range protects it from the cold northern winds.
The DO Pla i Llevant was established in 1999, and it sits a bit more to the east than the DO Binissalem, also in Mallorca. It has a clear Mediterranean climate, and the proximity of the sea and its light breezes helps to even out the temperatures.
True or False: Jumilla is phylloxera free, thanks to its sandy soils.
False. It remained phylloxera free until the 1980s.
The resulting vineyard decimation allowed the region’s producers to refocus, pivoting away from generic bulk wine production to the cultivation of the drought-resistant, thick-skinned Monastrell.
What is doble pasta? What grape is classically used?
Utiel-Requena DO red wines are primarily produced from the Bobal grape and doble pasta is a traditional style. Doble Pasta red wines are macerated and fermented with twice the normal amount of grape skins and pulp, resulting in a wine of intense concentration, tannin and color. Often, doble pasta wines are used to strengthen weaker blends, but this traditional role is ebbing away with the rising production of grape concentrate in Utiel-Requena.
What is Fondillón?
Alicante DO is known for dessert wines: a local specialty is Fondillón, a solera-style, oxidative dessert wine produced from overripe Monastrell (Mourvèdre) grapes aged for a minimum of ten years. Unlike Sherry, Fondillón is not fortified and it does carry the flavor of wood.
What winery produces Clio, Corteo, and El Nido? Which Australian winemaker is associated with these wines? For which Australian wines did he become famous?
Gil Family and Chris Ringland. Chris's "Three Rivers Shiraz" is what made him famous.
What DOs comprise the Levant region?
It's the east coast of Spain, namely Valencia and Murcia. Each has 3 DOs.
Valencia DOs: Valencia, Alicante and Utiel-Requena.
Murcia DOs: Jumilla, Yecla, and Bullas.
Which estate received the first DO Pago? Where is it?
Dominio de Valdepusa (Marquis de Griñón) in Toledo (Castilla-La Mancha) in 2003.
What helps make Valdepeñas distinctive?
Its higher concentration of chalk bedrock, which provides better retention of water in the arid environment.
What DO of Castilla-La Mancha regulates yields based on vine age?
Name 3 different Spanish synonyms for Tempranillo and the DOs where you'd find them.
Tinto del País - Ribera del Duero
Tinta de Toro - Toro
Ull de Llebre - Penedès (Medio-Penedès)
Ribera del Guadiana DO is the sole DO in Extremadura. What are its 6 subregions?
Ribera Alta de Guadiana
Ribera Baja de Guadiana
Tierra de Barros
What is a pago?
What are the DOs of Andalucia?
Sierras de Málaga
Condado du Huelva
Manzanilla Sanlúcar de Barrameda
What grapes is authorized for Tarragona Classico DO wines?
Tempranillo (Ull de Llebre)
What two grapes are used for Toro DO whites?
What two mountain ranges bracket north central Spain?
Pyrenées and Cantabrian
What is the industrial capital of Rioja? What famous vineyard sits inside the city limits and which bodega owns it?
Logroño is the industrial capital. The vineyard there is Finca Ygay, Marques de Murrieta's estate vineyard.
What does Envejecido en Roble indicate?
What is the capital of Rioja Alta? Name three bodegas in Rioja Alta.
La Rioja Alta, Lopez de Heredia, CVNE, Muga
What are the permitted training methods of Rioja?
Cordon (single or double), "en vaso" (bush vines), "vara y pulgar"
What are the major soil types in Rioja Alta, Rioja Alavesa, and Rioja Baja?
Alta - yellow calcareous clay in the north; lower slopes of the Ebro have reddish, iron-rich clay
Alavesa - calcareous clay
Baja - mostly alluvial, silty soils with some iron-rich clay
What are the subregions of Navarra?
The higher altitude Valdizarbe
Baja Montaña and Tierra Estella in the north
Ribera Alta in the center of the zone
Ribera Baja in the hot southern sector
Viñas Vejas in Calatayud means:
Wines must come from vineyards of at least 35 years of age
Name three estates in Navarra which were given DO Pago status, and where in Navarra they are.
Señorio de Arínzano and Prado Irache in Tierra Estella, and Bodegas Otazu in Valdizarbe
When were the Denominación de Origen regulations established in Spain?
Non-Rioja Aging Terminology
Noble - 18 mos in cask
Añejo - 24 mos in cask
Viejo - 36 mos in cask, marked oxidized X
What was the first DOC in Spain? What year?