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Flashcards in France Deck (72):

What are the soils of Margaux?

shallow, pebbly, siliceous gravel over gravel subsoils interbedded with limestone


What are the soils of St. Julien?

Fine gravel topsoil with good sized pebbles, all within sight of the Gironde. Inland - smaller pebbles mixed with sandy loess Subsoil is iron-pan, marl and gravel


What are the soils of Pauillac?

Massive gravel beds which reach great depth


What are the soils of St. Estephe?

Gravelly topsoil; more fertile than communes further south. Clay subsoil with stony-clay & limestone


1855 Classification of Reds - 1st Growths

Château Lafite - Pauillac

Château Latour - Pauillac

Château Mouton-Rothschild (1973)

Château Margaux - Margaux

Château Haut-Brion - Pessac-Léognan


1855 Classification of Reds - 2nd Growths

Château Cos d'Estournel, Saint-Estèphe

Château Montrose, Saint-Estèphe

Château Pichon Longueville Baron, Pauillac

Château Pichon Longueville Comtesse de Lalande, Pauillac

Château Léoville-Las Cases, Saint-Julien

Château Léoville-Poyferré, Saint-Julien

Château Léoville Barton, Saint-Julien

Château Gruaud-Larose, Saint-Julien

Château Ducru-Beaucaillou, Saint-Julien

Château Rauzan-Ségla, Margaux

Château Rauzan-Gassies, Margaux

Château Durfort-Vivens, Margaux

Château Lascombes, Margaux

Château Brane-Cantenac, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)


1855 Classification of Reds - 3rd Growths


Château Calon-Ségur, Saint-Estèphe

Château Lagrange, Saint-Julien

Château Langoa Barton, Saint-Julien

Château Malescot-Saint-Exupéry, Margaux

Château Desmirail, Margaux

Château Ferrière, Margaux

Château Marquis d'Alesme Becker, Margaux

Château Kirwan, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)

Château d'Issan, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)

Château Boyd-Cantenac, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)

Château Cantenac-Brown, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)

Château Palmer, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)

Château Giscours, Labarde-Margaux (Margaux)

Château La Lagune, Ludon (Haut-Medoc)


1855 Classification of Reds - 4th Growths

Château Lafon-Rochet, Saint-Estèphe

Château Duhart-Milon-Rothschild, Pauillac

Château Saint-Pierre, Saint-Julien  

Château Talbot, Saint-Julien

Château Branaire-Ducru, Saint-Julien

Château Beychevelle, Saint-Julien

Château Marquis de Terme, Margaux

Château Pouget, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)

Château Prieuré-Lichine, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)

Château La Tour Carnet, Saint-Laurent (Haut-Médoc)


1855 Classification of Reds - 5th Growths


Château Cos Labory, Saint-Estèphe

Château Pontet-Canet, Pauillac

Château Batailley, Pauillac

Château Haut-Batailley, Pauillac

Château Haut-Bages-Libéral, Pauillac

Château Grand-Puy-Lacoste, Pauillac

Château Grand-Puy-Ducasse, Pauillac

Château Lynch-Bages, Pauillac

Château Lynch-Moussas, Pauillac

Château d'Armailhac, Pauillac: This estate was known as Mouton-Baronne-Philippe from 1933-1988.

Château Pédesclaux, Pauillac

Château Clerc-Milon, Pauillac

Château Croizet Bages, Pauillac

Château Dauzac, Labarde (Margaux)

Château du Tertre, Arsac (Margaux)

Château Belgrave, Saint-Laurent (Haut-Médoc)

Château de Camensac, Saint-Laurent (Haut-Médoc)

Château Cantemerle, Macau (Haut-Médoc)


1855 Classification of Whites - 1st Growths

Château La Tour Blanche, Bommes (Sauternes)
Château Lafaurie-Peyraguey, Bommes (Sauternes)
Château Clos Haut-Peyraguey, Bommes (Sauternes)
Château de Rayne-Vigneau, Bommes (Sauternes)
Château Suduiraut, Preignac (Sauternes)
Château Coutet, Barsac
Château Climens, Barsac
Château Guiraud, Sauternes
Château Rieussec, Fargues (Sauternes)
Château Rabaud-Promis, Bommes (Sauternes)
Château Sigalas-Rabaud, Bommes (Sauternes)


What is the INAO? The INAO changed its name, but not the acronym, in 2007. What is that new name? Further, what is the new category called and in what year was it established?

Institut National des Appellations d'Origine. In 2007 it became the Institut National de l'Origine et de la Qualite. It was first created in 1935. It established the new AOP system in 2009 (Appellation d'origins Protegee). Part of the Ministry of Agriculture, the INAO is an organization charged with regulating agricultural products with Protected Designations of Origin.


What are the Crus of Beaujolais, north to south?

St. Amour Julienas Moulin-a-Vent Chenas Fleurie Chiroubles Morgon Regnie Brouilly Cote de Brouilly


What are the Cote Chalonnaise appellations, north to south?

Bouzeron Rully Mercurey Givry Montagny


What are the Grand Crus of Chablis, west to east?

Bougros Les Preuses (La Moutonne) Vaudesir Grenouilles Valmur Les Clos Blanchot


What are the 5 Sauternes/Barsac ACs? They are aged in cask for up to ___ years.

Sauternes Fargues Bommes Preignac Barsac 3 years


AC Alsace Grand Cru must have a minimum of ___% ABV.



Montagny 1er Cru in Cote Chalonnaise produces ____ wines only. Any wine over ___% ABV can be labelled 1er Cru.

white wines only (Chardonnay) 11.5%


The 5 major districts of Champagne are:

Montagne de Reims - known for PN - Ambonnay, Ay, Bouzy, Verzenay, Verzy Vallée de la Marne - known for PM & PN - Mareuil-sur-Ay, Dizy, Hautvillers, Cumieres Cotes des Blancs - known for CH - Cramant, Avize, Mesnil-sur-Oger The Aube - known for PN - les Riceys Cote de Sezanne - known for CH - Bethon, Villenauxe-la-Grande


The warmest part of the Loire is:



AOCs in Touraine:

Cheverny Vouvray Montlouis Bourgueil Chinon Coteaux du Loir


AOCs in Central Vineyards:

Sancerre Menetou-Salon Reuilly Quincy Pouilly-sur-Loire


AOCs in Anjou:

Anjou Saumur Savennieres Coteaux du Layon


AOCs in Nantais:

Muscadet Muscadet de Sevre-et-Maine Muscadet Cotes de Grand-Lieu Muscadet des Coteaux de la Loire Coteaux d'Ancenis


What are the three main varieties of Muscat?

Muscat Blanc a Petit Grains Muscat of Alexandria Muscat Ottonel


VDQS: when was it created and eliminated?

Created in 1949. INAO eliminated it in 2011; most VDQS regions advanced to full AOC/AOP status.


What is Bordeaux's climate? What influences it?

Maritime climate, becomes more Continental toward Pomerol and St. Emilion. Both the Atlantic and Gironde influence it.


Current French Wine classifications:

AOC/AOP IGP/VdP Table wine (Vin de France)


True or False: Since 2009, vintage and varietal can now appear on a label of Vin de France.

True. Acidification and use of oak chips are also allowed in Vin de France.


What are the 3 levels of IGP zones in France?

Regional Departmental Local IGP = Indication Géographique Protegee


Yield restrictions & minimum ABV for IGP/VdP wines:

Yield restrictions for whites: 90 hl/ha Yield restrictions for red & rose: 85 hl/ha Min ABV: 9-10%


1er Cotes de Bordeaux AOP produces exclusively sweet or dry wines?



What are sweet white wine appellations on the eastern shore of the Garonne?

Loupiac Ste. Croix-du-Mont Cadiallac They may or may not be affected by Botrytis.


Entre-Deux-Mers can use what geographical designation?

Haut-Benauge The wines must be dry.


Which appellations can be listed on a label of Cotes de Bordeaux AOP? As of which vintage?

Francs Castillon Blaye Cadillac Since 2008


Where are the oldest cultivated vineyards found in Bordeaux?

Bourg & Cotes de Bourg. Romans brought viticulture to Bourg's limestone slopes.


What are the 4 satellite appellations of St. Emilion?

Lussac St. Georges Montagne Puisseguin


What are 5 of the best Pomerol properties?

Chateau Petrus Vieux Chateau Certan Chateau Lafleur Chateau Le Pin Chateau Trotanoy


What is the soil of Pomerol?

Dominated by sand, clay & gravel; has a subsoil of iron pan and rich clay. Crasse de fer = rich clay


Cab Franc is aka ____ in Pomerol?

Bouchet usually comprises 20-25% of most Pomerol


Can St. Emilion have Petit Verdot in it?

Yes, max 10%


St. Emilion Grand Cru AOP is an appellation or a classification?

Appellation. Wines labeled St. Emilion Grand Cru are required to show an additional 0.5% alcohol AND must undergo a longer elevate than wines simply labeled St. Emilion AOP.


2012 Classifications of St. Emilion:

1er Cru Classe A: Ausone, Cheval Blanc, Angelus, Pavie 4 1er Cru Classe B: 14 Grand Cru Classe: 64


St. Emilion created its own 3-tier ranking system in what year?

1954 Revisions made in 1969, 1985, 1996, 2006, 2012. It's based on peer-reviewed tasting.


2 types of soil in St. Emilion:

Cotes: hillside/steep slops made of limestone Graves: gravelly limestone plateau resembling soils of Medoc


In which Right Bank house is Cab Sauv used as a major component?

Chateau Figeac in St. Emilion


In which vintages did d'Yquem NOT produce Sauternes?

1910, 1915, 1930, 1951, 1952, 1964, 1972, 1974, 1992 and 2012


Sauternes lies at the conflux of which two rivers?

Ciron Garonne Cool morning mists off Ciron encounter warmer waters of Garonne producing autumn afternoon humidity perfect for incubating Botrytis spores.


Communes of Pessac-Leognan AOP? There are 10. When was the sub-app created?

Created in 1987. Pessac Leognan Cadaujac Canejan Gradignan Martillac Merignac St-Medard-d'Eyrans Talence Villenave-d'Ornons


When were Graves wines first classified?

1953, with 6 additional in 1959 Present: 13 estates classified cry classe red; 9 for white


Soil in Graves?

Similar to Medoc but becomes sandier toward the south. This mixture of sand, gravel & light clay is aka Boulbenes.


5 villages of Margaux AOP

Soussans Margaux Cantenac Labarde Arsac


What is the difference between the designations Cru Artisan and Cru Bourgeois?

Cru Artisan has been used for nearly 150 years, but it wasn't formally recognized until 2002. 44 small producers throughout Medoc's appellations have the right to use this designation; they are exceptional stewards of land and craft of winemaking. Cru Bourgeois was first introduced in 1932, later nullified, then reinstated in 2008. Term acts as guarantor of quality, and chateaux must apply for it regularly.


Who commissioned the 1855 Bordeaux Classification?

Emperor Napoleon III Carried out by the region's courtiers (or brokers). They were characterized by price.


What red grape is grown in high proportion in the Medoc? Why?

Merlot. It performs well on the clay-heavy soils.


What are the drainage channels in Bordeaux called?

Jalles They criss-cross the low-lying, remote landscape of the Medoc


What are three secondary white grapes in Bordeaux AOP?

Ugni Blanc Merlot Blanc Colombard max 30%


Malbec is aka _____ on the Right Bank?

Pressac Infrequently used these days


Cab Franc prefers what kind of soil?

Limestone based, which promotes acidity and freshness


Cab Sauv prefers what kind of soil?

Well-drained gravel. It allows roots to dig deep; slight water stress adds concentration to fruit. It has difficulty ripening in limestone and clay.


What is the most widely planted red grape in Bordeaux (and in France)? When does it ripen?

Merlot, and it is the earliest to ripen.


Merlot prefers what kind of soil?

Clay-based. It delays Merlot's natural vigor.


What is claret (in Bordeaux)?

A darker, more aromatic style of rose that evokes the original claret wines shoppe to England int he Middle Ages.


What is Bordeaux Mixture?

A mix of lime, copper sulfate and water. It helps avoid fungal problems.


In what year was the first AOC awarded, and how may are there now?

First awarded in 1936. Over 480 today.


As of 2011, Bordeaux has more acreage under vine than any other region in France. True or False?

True - 117,500 ha are under vine in Bdx.


The Médoc actually experiences more annual rainfall than any other major wine region in France. How much to they get?

950mm. It's somewhat evenly dispersed throughout the year; Bdx doesn't have a "dry" season.


What is Bdx's most planted white grape?



What is Magdeleine Noire des Charentes?

The genetic parent to Merlot and Malbec (they are half-siblings)


There are 3 regional appellations apply to the entire area of Bordeaux:

  1. Bordeaux AOP - red, white (sec, off-dry, and medium sweet), rosé, and clairet
  2. Bordeaux Supérieur AOP - limited to red (élévage til mid-June) and medium sweet white wines
  3. Crémant de Bordeaux AOP


What was Burdigala?

A settlement and trading station on the west bank of the Garonne founded around the 3rd century BCE and fell under Roman rule in 56 CE.  It became the city of Bdx.


1855 Classification of Whites - 2nd Growths

Château de Myrat, Barsac
Château Doisy Daëne, Barsac
Château Doisy-Dubroca, Barsac
Château Doisy-Védrines, Barsac
Château d'Arche, Sauternes
Château Filhot, Sauternes
Château Broustet, Barsac
Château Nairac, Barsac
Château Caillou, Barsac
Château Suau, Barsac
Château de Malle, Preignac (Sauternes)
Château Romer, Fargues (Sauternes)
Château Romer du Hayot, Fargues (Sauternes)
Château Lamothe, Sauternes
Château Lamothe-Guignard, Sauternes


Who are Michel Rolland, Stéphane Derenoncourt, Denis Dubourdieu?

Wine consultants.