What are the soils of Margaux?
shallow, pebbly, siliceous gravel over gravel subsoils interbedded with limestone
What are the soils of St. Julien?
Fine gravel topsoil with good sized pebbles, all within sight of the Gironde. Inland - smaller pebbles mixed with sandy loess Subsoil is iron-pan, marl and gravel
What are the soils of Pauillac?
Massive gravel beds which reach great depth
What are the soils of St. Estephe?
Gravelly topsoil; more fertile than communes further south. Clay subsoil with stony-clay & limestone
1855 Classification of Reds - 1st Growths
Château Lafite - Pauillac
Château Latour - Pauillac
Château Mouton-Rothschild (1973)
Château Margaux - Margaux
Château Haut-Brion - Pessac-Léognan
1855 Classification of Reds - 2nd Growths
Château Cos d'Estournel, Saint-Estèphe
Château Montrose, Saint-Estèphe
Château Pichon Longueville Baron, Pauillac
Château Pichon Longueville Comtesse de Lalande, Pauillac
Château Léoville-Las Cases, Saint-Julien
Château Léoville-Poyferré, Saint-Julien
Château Léoville Barton, Saint-Julien
Château Gruaud-Larose, Saint-Julien
Château Ducru-Beaucaillou, Saint-Julien
Château Rauzan-Ségla, Margaux
Château Rauzan-Gassies, Margaux
Château Durfort-Vivens, Margaux
Château Lascombes, Margaux
Château Brane-Cantenac, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
1855 Classification of Reds - 3rd Growths
Château Calon-Ségur, Saint-Estèphe
Château Lagrange, Saint-Julien
Château Langoa Barton, Saint-Julien
Château Malescot-Saint-Exupéry, Margaux
Château Desmirail, Margaux
Château Ferrière, Margaux
Château Marquis d'Alesme Becker, Margaux
Château Kirwan, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château d'Issan, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château Boyd-Cantenac, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château Cantenac-Brown, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château Palmer, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château Giscours, Labarde-Margaux (Margaux)
Château La Lagune, Ludon (Haut-Medoc)
1855 Classification of Reds - 4th Growths
Château Lafon-Rochet, Saint-Estèphe
Château Duhart-Milon-Rothschild, Pauillac
Château Saint-Pierre, Saint-Julien
Château Talbot, Saint-Julien
Château Branaire-Ducru, Saint-Julien
Château Beychevelle, Saint-Julien
Château Marquis de Terme, Margaux
Château Pouget, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château Prieuré-Lichine, Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux)
Château La Tour Carnet, Saint-Laurent (Haut-Médoc)
1855 Classification of Reds - 5th Growths
NO ST. JULIEN
Château Cos Labory, Saint-Estèphe
Château Pontet-Canet, Pauillac
Château Batailley, Pauillac
Château Haut-Batailley, Pauillac
Château Haut-Bages-Libéral, Pauillac
Château Grand-Puy-Lacoste, Pauillac
Château Grand-Puy-Ducasse, Pauillac
Château Lynch-Bages, Pauillac
Château Lynch-Moussas, Pauillac
Château d'Armailhac, Pauillac: This estate was known as Mouton-Baronne-Philippe from 1933-1988.
Château Pédesclaux, Pauillac
Château Clerc-Milon, Pauillac
Château Croizet Bages, Pauillac
Château Dauzac, Labarde (Margaux)
Château du Tertre, Arsac (Margaux)
Château Belgrave, Saint-Laurent (Haut-Médoc)
Château de Camensac, Saint-Laurent (Haut-Médoc)
Château Cantemerle, Macau (Haut-Médoc)
1855 Classification of Whites - 1st Growths
Château La Tour Blanche, Bommes (Sauternes)
Château Lafaurie-Peyraguey, Bommes (Sauternes)
Château Clos Haut-Peyraguey, Bommes (Sauternes)
Château de Rayne-Vigneau, Bommes (Sauternes)
Château Suduiraut, Preignac (Sauternes)
Château Coutet, Barsac
Château Climens, Barsac
Château Guiraud, Sauternes
Château Rieussec, Fargues (Sauternes)
Château Rabaud-Promis, Bommes (Sauternes)
Château Sigalas-Rabaud, Bommes (Sauternes)
What is the INAO? The INAO changed its name, but not the acronym, in 2007. What is that new name? Further, what is the new category called and in what year was it established?
Institut National des Appellations d'Origine. In 2007 it became the Institut National de l'Origine et de la Qualite. It was first created in 1935. It established the new AOP system in 2009 (Appellation d'origins Protegee). Part of the Ministry of Agriculture, the INAO is an organization charged with regulating agricultural products with Protected Designations of Origin.
What are the Crus of Beaujolais, north to south?
St. Amour Julienas Moulin-a-Vent Chenas Fleurie Chiroubles Morgon Regnie Brouilly Cote de Brouilly
What are the Cote Chalonnaise appellations, north to south?
Bouzeron Rully Mercurey Givry Montagny
What are the Grand Crus of Chablis, west to east?
Bougros Les Preuses (La Moutonne) Vaudesir Grenouilles Valmur Les Clos Blanchot
What are the 5 Sauternes/Barsac ACs? They are aged in cask for up to ___ years.
Sauternes Fargues Bommes Preignac Barsac 3 years
AC Alsace Grand Cru must have a minimum of ___% ABV.
Montagny 1er Cru in Cote Chalonnaise produces ____ wines only. Any wine over ___% ABV can be labelled 1er Cru.
white wines only (Chardonnay) 11.5%
The 5 major districts of Champagne are:
Montagne de Reims - known for PN - Ambonnay, Ay, Bouzy, Verzenay, Verzy Vallée de la Marne - known for PM & PN - Mareuil-sur-Ay, Dizy, Hautvillers, Cumieres Cotes des Blancs - known for CH - Cramant, Avize, Mesnil-sur-Oger The Aube - known for PN - les Riceys Cote de Sezanne - known for CH - Bethon, Villenauxe-la-Grande
The warmest part of the Loire is:
AOCs in Touraine:
Cheverny Vouvray Montlouis Bourgueil Chinon Coteaux du Loir
AOCs in Central Vineyards:
Sancerre Menetou-Salon Reuilly Quincy Pouilly-sur-Loire
AOCs in Anjou:
Anjou Saumur Savennieres Coteaux du Layon
AOCs in Nantais:
Muscadet Muscadet de Sevre-et-Maine Muscadet Cotes de Grand-Lieu Muscadet des Coteaux de la Loire Coteaux d'Ancenis
What are the three main varieties of Muscat?
Muscat Blanc a Petit Grains Muscat of Alexandria Muscat Ottonel
VDQS: when was it created and eliminated?
Created in 1949. INAO eliminated it in 2011; most VDQS regions advanced to full AOC/AOP status.
What is Bordeaux's climate? What influences it?
Maritime climate, becomes more Continental toward Pomerol and St. Emilion. Both the Atlantic and Gironde influence it.
Current French Wine classifications:
AOC/AOP IGP/VdP Table wine (Vin de France)
True or False: Since 2009, vintage and varietal can now appear on a label of Vin de France.
True. Acidification and use of oak chips are also allowed in Vin de France.
What are the 3 levels of IGP zones in France?
Regional Departmental Local IGP = Indication Géographique Protegee
Yield restrictions & minimum ABV for IGP/VdP wines:
Yield restrictions for whites: 90 hl/ha Yield restrictions for red & rose: 85 hl/ha Min ABV: 9-10%
1er Cotes de Bordeaux AOP produces exclusively sweet or dry wines?
What are sweet white wine appellations on the eastern shore of the Garonne?
Loupiac Ste. Croix-du-Mont Cadiallac They may or may not be affected by Botrytis.
Entre-Deux-Mers can use what geographical designation?
Haut-Benauge The wines must be dry.
Which appellations can be listed on a label of Cotes de Bordeaux AOP? As of which vintage?
Francs Castillon Blaye Cadillac Since 2008
Where are the oldest cultivated vineyards found in Bordeaux?
Bourg & Cotes de Bourg. Romans brought viticulture to Bourg's limestone slopes.
What are the 4 satellite appellations of St. Emilion?
Lussac St. Georges Montagne Puisseguin
What are 5 of the best Pomerol properties?
Chateau Petrus Vieux Chateau Certan Chateau Lafleur Chateau Le Pin Chateau Trotanoy
What is the soil of Pomerol?
Dominated by sand, clay & gravel; has a subsoil of iron pan and rich clay. Crasse de fer = rich clay
Cab Franc is aka ____ in Pomerol?
Bouchet usually comprises 20-25% of most Pomerol
Can St. Emilion have Petit Verdot in it?
Yes, max 10%
St. Emilion Grand Cru AOP is an appellation or a classification?
Appellation. Wines labeled St. Emilion Grand Cru are required to show an additional 0.5% alcohol AND must undergo a longer elevate than wines simply labeled St. Emilion AOP.
2012 Classifications of St. Emilion:
1er Cru Classe A: Ausone, Cheval Blanc, Angelus, Pavie 4 1er Cru Classe B: 14 Grand Cru Classe: 64
St. Emilion created its own 3-tier ranking system in what year?
1954 Revisions made in 1969, 1985, 1996, 2006, 2012. It's based on peer-reviewed tasting.
2 types of soil in St. Emilion:
Cotes: hillside/steep slops made of limestone Graves: gravelly limestone plateau resembling soils of Medoc
In which Right Bank house is Cab Sauv used as a major component?
Chateau Figeac in St. Emilion
In which vintages did d'Yquem NOT produce Sauternes?
1910, 1915, 1930, 1951, 1952, 1964, 1972, 1974, 1992 and 2012
Sauternes lies at the conflux of which two rivers?
Ciron Garonne Cool morning mists off Ciron encounter warmer waters of Garonne producing autumn afternoon humidity perfect for incubating Botrytis spores.
Communes of Pessac-Leognan AOP? There are 10. When was the sub-app created?
Created in 1987. Pessac Leognan Cadaujac Canejan Gradignan Martillac Merignac St-Medard-d'Eyrans Talence Villenave-d'Ornons
When were Graves wines first classified?
1953, with 6 additional in 1959 Present: 13 estates classified cry classe red; 9 for white
Soil in Graves?
Similar to Medoc but becomes sandier toward the south. This mixture of sand, gravel & light clay is aka Boulbenes.
5 villages of Margaux AOP
Soussans Margaux Cantenac Labarde Arsac
What is the difference between the designations Cru Artisan and Cru Bourgeois?
Cru Artisan has been used for nearly 150 years, but it wasn't formally recognized until 2002. 44 small producers throughout Medoc's appellations have the right to use this designation; they are exceptional stewards of land and craft of winemaking. Cru Bourgeois was first introduced in 1932, later nullified, then reinstated in 2008. Term acts as guarantor of quality, and chateaux must apply for it regularly.
Who commissioned the 1855 Bordeaux Classification?
Emperor Napoleon III Carried out by the region's courtiers (or brokers). They were characterized by price.
What red grape is grown in high proportion in the Medoc? Why?
Merlot. It performs well on the clay-heavy soils.
What are the drainage channels in Bordeaux called?
Jalles They criss-cross the low-lying, remote landscape of the Medoc
What are three secondary white grapes in Bordeaux AOP?
Ugni Blanc Merlot Blanc Colombard max 30%
Malbec is aka _____ on the Right Bank?
Pressac Infrequently used these days
Cab Franc prefers what kind of soil?
Limestone based, which promotes acidity and freshness
Cab Sauv prefers what kind of soil?
Well-drained gravel. It allows roots to dig deep; slight water stress adds concentration to fruit. It has difficulty ripening in limestone and clay.
What is the most widely planted red grape in Bordeaux (and in France)? When does it ripen?
Merlot, and it is the earliest to ripen.
Merlot prefers what kind of soil?
Clay-based. It delays Merlot's natural vigor.
What is claret (in Bordeaux)?
A darker, more aromatic style of rose that evokes the original claret wines shoppe to England int he Middle Ages.
What is Bordeaux Mixture?
A mix of lime, copper sulfate and water. It helps avoid fungal problems.
In what year was the first AOC awarded, and how may are there now?
First awarded in 1936. Over 480 today.
As of 2011, Bordeaux has more acreage under vine than any other region in France. True or False?
True - 117,500 ha are under vine in Bdx.
The Médoc actually experiences more annual rainfall than any other major wine region in France. How much to they get?
950mm. It's somewhat evenly dispersed throughout the year; Bdx doesn't have a "dry" season.
What is Bdx's most planted white grape?
What is Magdeleine Noire des Charentes?
The genetic parent to Merlot and Malbec (they are half-siblings)
There are 3 regional appellations apply to the entire area of Bordeaux:
- Bordeaux AOP - red, white (sec, off-dry, and medium sweet), rosé, and clairet
- Bordeaux Supérieur AOP - limited to red (élévage til mid-June) and medium sweet white wines
- Crémant de Bordeaux AOP
What was Burdigala?
A settlement and trading station on the west bank of the Garonne founded around the 3rd century BCE and fell under Roman rule in 56 CE. It became the city of Bdx.
1855 Classification of Whites - 2nd Growths
Château de Myrat, Barsac
Château Doisy Daëne, Barsac
Château Doisy-Dubroca, Barsac
Château Doisy-Védrines, Barsac
Château d'Arche, Sauternes
Château Filhot, Sauternes
Château Broustet, Barsac
Château Nairac, Barsac
Château Caillou, Barsac
Château Suau, Barsac
Château de Malle, Preignac (Sauternes)
Château Romer, Fargues (Sauternes)
Château Romer du Hayot, Fargues (Sauternes)
Château Lamothe, Sauternes
Château Lamothe-Guignard, Sauternes
Who are Michel Rolland, Stéphane Derenoncourt, Denis Dubourdieu?