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Flashcards in Prac 40 Deck (42):
1

职〔職〕
zhí
1 duty; job ▶ 尽职 jìnzhí
2 post; office ▶ 就职 jiùzhí, 在职 zàizhí
3 manage; direct ▶ 职掌 zhízhǎng
4
OLD(used in official reports to superiors) I
5
FORMALbecause of

职是之故
zhíshìzhigù
for this particular reason

2

照顾

照顾〔-顧〕
zhàogu
1 give consideration to; show consideration for; make allowance(s) for

照顾到两国的友好关系
Zhàogu dào liǎng guó de yǒuhǎo guānxi
out of consideration for the friendship of the two countries

照顾全局
zhàogu quánjú
take the whole into account; consider the situation as a whole

照顾多数
zhàogu duōshù
make allowance for the majority; think in terms of the majority

照顾实际需要
zhàogu shíjì xūyào
consider actual needs

照顾他的困难
zhàogu tā de kùnnan
take his difficulties into account

给予适当照顾
jǐyǔ shìdàng zhàogu
give appropriate preferential treatment

青年团的工作要照顾青年的特点。
Qīngniántuán de gōngzuò yào zhàogu qīngnián de tèdiǎn.
The Youth League in its work must take the characteristics of youth into consideration.
2 look after; care for; attend to

照顾伤员
Zhàogu shāngyuán
look after the wounded

烈军属受到政府的特别照顾。
Liè jūnshǔ shòudào zhèngfǔ de tèbié zhàogu.
Families of martyrs and servicemen receive special care from the government.
3 (of a customer) patronize

3

家务

家务〔-務〕
jiāwù
household duties

家务劳动
jiāwù láodòng
housework; household chores

家务总也做不完。
Jiāwù zǒng yě zuò bù wán.
Household chores never get completely finished. or There is no end to household chores.

4

务〔務〕

1 affair; business ▶ 公务 gōngwù
2 be engaged in; devote one's efforts to ▶ 务农 wùnóng
3
ADVERBmust; be sure to

务使大家明了这一点。
Wùshǐ dàjiā míng le zhè yīdiǎn.
Be sure to make this point clear to everyone.

务请光临指导。
Wù qǐng guānglín zhǐdǎo.
You are cordially invited to come and give guidance.
4 (used as part of a place name)

曹家务
Cáo jiāwù
Caojiawu (in Hebei)

5

权利

权利〔權-〕
quánlì
right

劳动的权利
Láodòng de quánlì
the right to work

受教育的权利
shòu jiàoyù de quánlì
the right to education

6

作用

作用
zuòyòng
1 act on; affect

外界事物作用于我们的感官, 在我们的头脑中形成印象。
Wàijiè shìwù zuòyòng yú wǒmen de gǎnguān, zài wǒmen de tóunǎo zhōng xíngchéng yìnxiàng.
External things act on our sense organs and give rise to impressions in our brains.
2 action; function

化学作用
huàxué zuòyòng
chemical action

心脏的作用
xīnzàng de zuòyòng
the function of the heart
3 effect

起作用
qǐ zuòyòng
be effective

起积极作用
qǐ jījí zuòyòng
play a positive role

不起作用
bù qǐ zuòyòng
be ineffective; won't work
4 purpose; intention; motive

他说那句话有什么作用?
Tā shuō nà jù huà yǒu shénme zuòyòng?
What was his purpose in saying that?

他那样说是有他的作用的。
Tā nàyàng shuō shì yǒu tā de zuòyòng de.
He had an axe to grind when he said that.

7

社会

社会〔-會〕
shèhuì
society; community

人类社会
rénlèi shèhuì
human society

国际社会
guójì shèhuì
international community

社会财富
shèhuì cáifù
wealth of society; public wealth

社会地位
shèhuì dìwèi
social position; social status

社会福利
shèhuì fúlì
social welfare; public welfare

社会环境
shèhuì huánjìng
social environment

社会基础
shèhuì jīchǔ
social base; social basis

社会实践
shèhuì shíjiàn
social practice

8

不只

不只
bùzhǐ
CONJUNCTIONnot only; not merely

河水不只可供灌溉, 且可用来发电。
Héshuǐ bù zhǐ kě gōng guàngài, qiě kě yòng lái fādiàn.
River waters can be used not only for irrigation but also for the generation of electricity.

9

几乎

几乎〔幾-〕
jīhū
ADVERBalmost; nearly; practically

他几乎一夜没睡。
Tā jīhū yī yè méi shuì.
He lay awake almost the whole night.

我在物理学方面的知识, 几乎等于零。
Wǒ zài wùlǐxué fāngmiàn de zhīshi, jīhū děngyú líng.
My knowledge of physics is practically nil.

你比我几乎高了一头。
Nǐ bǐ wǒ jīhū gāo le yī tóu.
You're nearly a head taller than I.

故乡变化太大了, 我几乎认不出来了。
Gùxiāng biànhuà tài dà le, wǒ jīhū rèn bù chūlai le.
My home town had changed so much that I could hardly recognize it.

我脚下一滑, 几乎(没)摔倒。
Wǒ jiǎo xià yī huá, jīhū (méi) shuāidǎo.
I slipped and nearly fell.

不是你提醒我, 我几乎忘了。
Bù shì nǐ tíxǐng wǒ, wǒ jīhū wàng le.
It would have slipped my mind if you hadn't reminded me of it.

VARIANTS
几几乎〔幾幾乎〕 jījīhū

10

双〔雙/㕠〕
shuāng
1 two; twin; both; dual

双目失明
shuāngmù shīmíng
blind in both eyes

双发动机飞机
shuāng fādòngjī fēijī
a twin-engined plane

粮食、棉花双丰收
liángshi, miánhua shuāng fēngshōu
bumper harvests of both grain and cotton
2
MEASURE WORD(for shoes, socks, chopsticks, etc.) pair

一双鞋
yī shuāng xié
a pair of shoes

一双袜子
yī shuāng wàzi
a pair of socks
3 (opp. 单 “odd”) even ▶ 双数 shuāngshù, 双号 shuānghào
4 double; twofold

双份
shuāngfèn
double the amount; twice as much

11

职工

职工〔職-〕
zhígōng
1 staff and workers; workers and staff members
2
OLDworkers; labour

职工运动
zhígōng yùndòng
labour movement; trade union movement

12

要是

要是
yàoshi
CONJUNCTION INFORMALif; suppose; in case

要是下雨怎么办?
Yào shi xiàyǔ zěnme bàn?
What if it rains? or Suppose it rains?

要是有人问的话, 就说我去看病了。
Yào shi yǒurén wèn de huà, jiù shuō wǒ qù kànbìng le.
If anyone asks for me, just say I've gone out to see a doctor.

要是别人, 我才不管呢。
Yào shi biéren, wǒ cái bù guǎn ne.
If it had been somebody else, I wouldn't have bothered myself.

13

看不起

看不起
kànbuqǐ
INFORMALlook down on; scorn; despise

别看不起这本小字典, 它真能帮助我们解决问题。
Bié kàn bu qǐ zhè běn xiǎo zìdiǎn, tā zhēn néng bāngzhù wǒmen jiějué wèntí.
Don't look down on this little dictionary. It really solves our problems.

你别看他不起, 人家可是位大诗人呢!
Nǐ bié kàn tā bù qǐ, rénjia kěshì wèi dà shīrén ne!
Don't look down on him. He's actually a fine poet.

他太骄傲了, 总看不起别人。
Tā tài jiāo'ào le, zǒng kànbuqǐ biéren.
He is very proud and always holds others in contempt.

14

为了

为了〔為-〕
wèile
PREPOSITIONfor; for the sake of; in order to

为了健康戒烟
Wèile jiànkāng jièyān
give up smoking for the sake of health

他们现在学英语是为了以后学工。
Tāmen xiànzài xué Yīngyǔ shì wèile yǐhòu xué gōng.
They are learning English in order that they can study engineering.

为了准确起见, 他再次核查数字。
Wèile zhǔnquè qǐjiàn, tā zàicì héchá shùzì.
To make sure, he checked all the figures over again.

15

就业

就业〔-業〕
jiùyè
obtain employment; take up an occupation; get a job

充分就业
chōngfèn jiùyè
full employment

就业不足
jiùyèbùzú
underemployment

16

公平

公平
gōngpíng
fair; just; impartial; equitable

公平合理
gōngpíng hélǐ
fair and reasonable

买卖公平
mǎimài gōngpíng
be fair in buying and selling; buy and sell at reasonable prices

公平交易
gōngpíng jiāoyì
fair deal

公平的协议
gōngpíng de xiéyì
an equitable agreement

社会公平
shèhuì gōngpíng
social equity

公平税负的原则
gōngpíng shuì fù de yuánzé
the principle of keeping taxation fair and reasonable

太不公平了。
Tài bù gōngpíng le.
It's grossly unfair.

17

平等

平等
píngděng
equality

男女平等
Nán-nǚ píngděng
equality between the sexes

平等互利
píngděnghùlì
equality and mutual benefit

平等协商
píngděng xiéshāng
consultation on the basis of equality

平等待遇
píngděng dàiyù
equal treatment

平等待人
píngděng dàirén
treat others as equals

在平等的基础上
zài píngděng de jīchǔ shàng
on an equal footing

各国主权平等
gèguó zhǔquán píngděng
sovereign equality of all nations

18

单位

单位〔單-〕
dānwèi
1 unit (as a standard of measurement)

长度单位
chángdù dānwèi
a unit of length

货币单位
huòbì dānwèi
monetary unit

单位面积产量
dānwèi miànji chǎnliàng
yield per unit area

以秒为单位计算时间
yǐ miǎo wéi dānwèi jìsuàn shíjiān
measure time by the second
2 unit (as an organization, department, division, section, etc.)

行政单位
xíngzhèng dānwèi
administrative unit

生产单位
shēngchǎn dānwèi
production unit

基层单位
jīcéng dānwèi
basic (or grass-roots) unit

19

竞争

竞争〔競爭〕
jìngzhēng
compete

市场竞争
shìchǎng jìngzhēng
competition for markets

自由竞争
zìyóu jìngzhēng
free competition

竞争能力
jìngzhēng nénglì
competitive power

竞争优势
jìngzhēng yōushì
competitive edge

富有竞争力
fùyǒu jìngzhēnglì
(of a price, product, etc.) highly competitive

20

同样

同样〔-樣〕
tóngyàng
same; equal; similar

同样的方法
Tóngyàng de fāngfǎ
the same method

同样情况下
tóngyàng qíngkuàng xià
under similar circumstances

同样地懂得
tóngyàng de dǒngde
know equally well

他说英语和法语同样流利。
Tā shuō Yīngyǔ hé Fǎyǔ tóngyàng liúlì.
He speaks English and French with equal fluency.

对中国古代的文化, 我们要吸收其中有益的东西, 同样, 对外国的也应如此。
Duì Zhōngguó gǔdài de wénhuà, wǒmen yào xīshōu qízhōng yǒuyì de dōngxi, tóngyàng, duì wàiguó de yě yīng rúcǐ.
We should assimilate whatever is beneficial in ancient Chinese culture, and deal with foreign culture likewise.

21

地位

地位
dìwèi
1 position; standing; place; status

政治地位
Zhèngzhì dìwèi
political position (or standing)

国际地位
guójì dìwèi
international standing

经济地位
jīngjì dìwèi
economic status

社会地位
shèhuì dìwèi
social position (or status)

地位平等
dìwèi píngděng
equal in status; on an equal footing

一定的历史地位
yīdìng de lìshǐ dìwèi
a proper or definite place in history

他地位变了, 但普通劳动者的本色没有变。
Tā dìwèi biàn le, dàn pǔtōng láodòngzhě de běnshǎi méiyǒu biàn.
His status has changed but he's kept the fine qualities of an ordinary labourer.
2 place (as occupied by a person or thing)

22

担负

担负〔擔負〕
dānfù
bear; shoulder; take on; be charged with

担负责任
Dānfù zérèn
shoulder responsibility

担负费用
dānfù fèiyong
bear an expense

担负领导工作
dānfù lǐngdǎo gōngzuò
hold a leading post

23

担〔擔〕
dān
1 carry on a shoulder pole

担水
dānshuǐ
carry water (with a shoulder pole and buckets)
2 take on; undertake

咱们把任务担起来。
Zánmen bǎ rènwu dān qǐlai.
Let's take on the job.

不怕担风险
Bù pà dān fēngxiǎn
be ready to face any danger; not be afraid of running risks
See dàn

24

负〔負〕

1
FORMALcarry on the back or shoulder

负薪
fùxīn
carry firewood on one's back
2 shoulder; bear

身负重任
shēnfùzhòngrèn
shoulder an important task

负责任
fù zérèn
assume the responsibility
3 have at one's back; rely on

负险固守
fù xiǎn gùshǒu
put up a stubborn defence by relying on one's strategic position
4 suffer ▶ 负伤 fùshāng
5 enjoy

久负盛名
jiǔfùshèngmíng
have long enjoyed a good reputation
6 owe ▶ 负债 fùzhài
7 fail in one's duty, obligation, etc.; betray ▶ 负约 fùyuē
8 lose (a battle, game, etc.); be defeated

一比二负于对方
yī bǐ èr fù yú duìfāng
lose the match 1:2

该队以两胜一负的成绩取得小组第二名。
Gāi duì yǐ liǎng shèng yī fù de chéngjì qǔdé xiǎozǔ dì-èr míng.
The team finished second in its group with two wins and one loss.
9
MATHEMATICSless than zero; minus; negative

负乘负得正。
Fù chéng fù de zhèng.
A negative number multiplied by another negative number makes the product positive.

负一点五
Fù yīdiǎn wǔ
minus one point five (-1.5)
10
ELECTRICITYnegative ▶ 负极 fùjí

25

占/佔
zhàn
1 occupy; seize; take

占用不少时间
Zhànyòng bùshǎo shíjiān
take up much time
2 constitute; hold; make up; account for

占多(少)数
zhàn duō (shǎo) shù
constitute the majority (minority)

占统治地位
zhàn tǒngzhì dìwèi
hold (or occupy) a dominant position

占世界第一位
zhàn shìjiè dì-yī wèi
rank first in the world

占总产值的百分之四十
zhàn zǒngchǎnzhí de bǎifēn zhī sìshí
make up (or account for, amount to) 40 per cent of the total output value

海洋几乎占地球表面四分之三。
Hǎiyáng jīhū zhàn dìqiú biǎomiàn sìfēn zhī sān.
The sea covers nearly three-fourths of the earth's surface.
See zhān

26

部长

部长〔-長〕
bùzhǎng
minister; head of a department (under the Party Central Committee)

外贸部部长
wàimào bù bùzhǎng
Minister of Foreign Trade

对外联络部部长
duìwài liánluòbù bùzhǎng
Head of the International Liaison Department

省委宣传部部长
shěng-wěi xuānchuánbù bùzhǎng
Director of the Propaganda Department of a provincial Party committee

27

封建

封建
fēngjiàn
1 the system of enfeoffment (see also 分封制 fēnfēngzhì)
2 feudalism
3 feudal; feudalistic

头脑封建
Tóunǎo fēngjiàn
feudal-minded

28

服从

服从〔-從〕
fúcóng
obey; submit (oneself) to; be subordinated to

服从命令
Fúcóng mìnglìng
obey orders

少数服从多数。
Shǎoshù fúcóng duōshù.
The minority should submit to the majority.

个人利益应当服从集体利益。
Gèrén lìyì yīngdāng fúcóng jítǐ lìyì.
One's personal interests should be subordinated to the interests of the collective.

29

矛盾

矛盾
máodùn
1
PHILOSOPHY LOGICcontradiction

矛盾的普遍性(特殊性)
Máodùn de pǔbiànxìng (tèshūxìng)
the universality (particularity) of contradiction

主要(非主要)矛盾
zhǔyào (fēi zhǔyào) máodùn
principal (nonprincipal) contradiction

矛盾的主要(次要)方面
máodùn de zhǔyào (cì yào) fāngmiàn
the principal (secondary) aspect of a contradiction

矛盾的同一性(斗争性)
máodùn de tóngyīxìng (dòuzhēng xìng)
the identity (struggle) of opposites

对抗性(非对抗性)矛盾
duìkàngxìng(fēiduìkàngxìng)máodùn
antagonistic (nonantagonistic) contradiction

矛盾的转化
máodùn de zhuǎnhuà
the transformation of a contradiction
2 problem; conflict; contradiction

双方发生矛盾已有多年。
Shuāngfāng fāshēng máodùn yǐ yǒu duō nián.
The two sides have been in conflict for years.

他俩在闹矛盾。
Tā liǎ zài nào máodùn.
The two of them have fallen out.

矛盾百出
máodùnbǎichū
full of contradictions

矛盾上交
máodùn shàngjiāo
pass on problems to a higher level instead of solving them oneself
3 contradict

他说的话前后矛盾。
Tā shuō de huà qiánhòu máodùn.
He was contradicting himself in what he said.
4 contradictory

这两种意见并不矛盾。
Zhè liǎng zhǒng yìjian bìng bù máodùn.
These two views are not contradictory (or mutually exclusive).

他的心情很矛盾。
Tā de xīnqíng hěn máodùn.
His feelings were mixed.

30

完全

完全
wánquán
1 complete; whole

他话没说完全。
Tā huà méi shuō wánquán.
He didn't give a full picture.
2
ADVERBcompletely; fully; wholly; entirely; absolutely

完全错了
Wánquán cuò le
be completely wrong

完全不同
wánquán bùtóng
be totally different; have nothing in common

完全相反
wánquán xiāngfǎn
be the exact opposite

完全正确
wánquán zhèngquè
perfectly right; absolutely correct

完全有资格
wánquán yǒu zīgé
fully qualified; fully eligible

完全彻底为人民服务
wánquán chèdǐ wèi rénmín fúwù
serve the people heart and soul

他完全同意我们的意见。
Tā wánquán tóngyì wǒmen de yìjian.
He fully agrees with us.

她完全不考虑个人得失。
Tā wánquán bù kǎolǜ gèrén dé-shī.
She gave no thought whatsoever to personal gain or loss.

31

报酬

报酬〔報-〕
bàochou
reward; remuneration; pay

不计报酬
bù jì bàochou
not concerned about pay; irrespective of remuneration

在发展生产的基础上逐步提高劳动报酬
zài fāzhǎn shēngchǎn de jīchǔ shàng zhúbù tígāo láodòng bàochou
gradually increase payment for labour on the basis of increased production

工作很累, 报酬不多
gōngzuò hěn lèi, bàochou bù duō
get very little in reward for one's hard work

她找到了一个报酬比较好的工作。
Tā zhǎodào le yī ge bàochou bǐjiào hǎo de gōngzuò.
She has found a more remunerative job.

32

建筑

建筑〔-築〕
jiànzhù
1 build; construct; erect

建筑桥梁
jiànzhù qiáoliáng
construct a bridge

建筑高楼
jiànzhù gāolóu
erect a tall building

建筑铁路
jiànzhù tiělù
build a railway

你不能把自己的幸福建筑在别人的痛苦上。
Nǐ bù néng bǎ zìjǐ de xìngfú jiànzhù zài biéren de tòngkǔ shàng.
You shouldn't build your happiness on the suffering of other people.
2 building; structure; edifice

古老的建筑
Gǔlǎo de jiànzhù
an ancient building

宏伟的建筑
hóngwěi de jiànzhù
a magnificent structure
3 architecture

他是学现代建筑的。
Tā shì xué xiàndài jiànzhù de.
His speciality is modern architecture.

建筑设计
Jiànzhù shèjì
architectural design

33


qiàn

1 yawn ▶ 哈欠 hāqian
2 raise slightly (a part of the body)

欠脚儿
qiàn jiǎor
slightly raise one's heels

1 owe; be behind with

欠租
qiànzū
be behind with the rent

我欠他十块钱。
Wǒ qiàn tā shí kuài qián.
I owe him ten yuan.

我还欠图书馆一本书。
Wǒ hái qiàn túshūguǎn yī běn shū.
I still owe the library a book.
2 not enough; lacking; wanting

文字欠通。
Wénzì qiàn tōng.
The writing is not altogether grammatical. or The wording is some-what awkward.

欠三天就是一个月了。
Qiàn sān tiān jiù shì yī ge yuè le.
It's three days short of a month.

你这样做有点欠聪明。
Nǐ zhèyàng zuò yǒu diǎn qiàn cōngming.
You weren't shrewd enough in your handling of the matter. or It wasn't very wise of you to have done that.

说话欠考虑
Shuōhuà qiàn kǎolǜ
be too free with one's tongue
3
DIALECTbe fidgety and bungling

他手欠着呢。
Tā shǒu qiàn zhe ne.
He always likes to fiddle with things.

嘴欠
zuǐ qiàn
have a loose tongue

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勇敢

勇敢
yǒnggǎn
brave; courageous

勤劳勇敢的人民
qínláo yǒnggǎn de rénmín
a brave and industrious people

勇敢善战
yǒnggǎnshànzhàn
courageous and skilful in battle

35

自信

自信
zìxìn
self-confident; confident

有自信心
yǒu zìxìnxīn
have self-confidence; be confident (or sure) of oneself

缺乏自信
quēfá zìxìn
lack confidence in oneself

她自信自己能赢。
Tā zìxìn zìjǐ néng yíng.
She is confident that she will win.

我自信能够完成这项任务。
Wǒ zìxìn nénggòu wánchéng zhè xiàng rènwu.
I'm sure I can fulfil the task.

36

副业

副业〔-業〕
fùyè
sideline; side occupation

副业生产
fùyè shēngchǎn
sideline (or supplementary, subsidiary) production

家庭副业
jiātíng fùyè
household sideline production

37

赚〔賺〕
zhuàn
1 make a profit; gain

这家商行做出口生意赚得可多了。
Zhè jiā shāngháng zuò chūkǒu shēngyi zhuàn de kě duō le.
The firm made large profits from exports.
2
INFORMALprofit
3
DIALECTearn (money)
See zuàn

38

赔〔賠〕
péi
1 make good a loss; compensate; pay for; indemnify

玻璃是我打碎的, 由我来赔。
Bōli shì wǒ dǎsuì de, yóu wǒ lái péi.
I broke the glass, so I'll pay for it.
2 lose money in business; stand a loss

去年我们赔的钱, 这一笔生意全赚回来了。
Qùnián wǒmen péi de qián, zhè yī bǐ shēngyi quán zhuàn huílai le.
We have retrieved in this bargain all the money we lost last year.

你算算咱们是赔是赚。
Nǐ suàn suàn zánmen shì péi shì zhuàn.
Balance the accounts and see if we have made any money.

39

激烈

激烈
jīliè
intense; sharp; fierce; acute

激烈的争论
jīliè de zhēnglùn
heated argument

一场激烈的比赛
yī chǎng jīliè de bǐsài
a closely fought game; a gruelling match

争吵得很激烈
zhēngchǎo de hěn jīliè
quarrel bitterly

这一仗打得很激烈。
Zhè yī zhàng dǎ de hěn jīliè.
It was a fierce fight.

两派爆发了激烈的冲突。
Liǎng pài bàofā le jīliè de chōngtū.
A fierce conflict erupted between the two factions.

40

口袋

口袋
kǒudài
pocket

41

培训

培训〔-訓〕
péixùn
train (personnel)

培训医务工作者
péixùn yīwù gōngzuòzhě
train medical personnel

培训导游人员
péixùn dǎoyóu rényuán
train tourist guides

在职培训
zàizhí péixùn
on-the-job training

短期强化培训
duǎnqī qiánghuà péixùn
short-term intensified training

42

全职

全职〔-職〕
quánzhí
full-time job