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Flashcards in Prac 47 Deck (35):
1

基本上

基本上
jīběnshang
1 basically
2 on the whole

2

实行

实行〔實-〕
shíxíng
put into practice (or effect); carry out; practise; implement

实行精兵简政的政策
Shíxíng jīngbīngjiǎnzhèng de zhèngcè
put into effect the policy of better staff and simpler administration

实行经济改革
shíxíng jīngjì gǎigé
carry out economic reforms

实行八小时工作制
shíxíng bā xiǎoshí gōngzuò zhì
institute an eight-hour (working) day

实行科学种田
shíxíng kēxué zhòngtián
farm scientifically

对反动分子实行专政
duì fǎndòng fènzǐ shíxíng zhuānzhèng
exercise dictatorship over the reactionaries

实行民主
shíxíng mínzhǔ
practise democracy

实行集体领导
shíxíng jítǐ lǐngdǎo
exercise collective leadership

3

改革

改革
gǎigé
reform

改革经济管理体制
Gǎigé jīngjì guǎnlǐ tǐzhì
reform the economic management system

工具改革
gōngjù gǎigé
improvement of tools

4

开放

开放
kāifàng
1 (of flowers) come into bloom
2 lift a ban, restriction, etc.

5

既然

既然
jìrán
CONJUNCTIONsince; as; now that

既然如此
jìránrúcǐ
since it is so; such being the case; under these circumstances

你既然表示了决心, 就应该见之于行动。
Nǐ jìrán biǎoshì le juéxīn, jiù yīnggāi jiàn zhī yú xíngdòng.
Now that you have expressed your determination, you should act.

既然事前提醒过他们, 他们就没什么可埋怨的。
Jìrán shìqián tíxǐng guò tāmen, tāmen jiù méi shénme kě mányuàn de.
Since they had a fair warning, they have no reason to complain.

既然你没准备好, 我们只能先走了。
Jìrán nǐ méi zhǔnbèi hǎo, wǒmen zhǐnéng xiān zǒu le.
As you are not ready, we must go without you.

6

原因

原因
yuányīn
cause; reason

原因和结果
Yuányīn hé jiéguǒ
cause and effect

成功的原因
chénggōng de yuányīn
reasons for the success

产生这种现象有两方面的原因。
Chǎnshēng zhèzhǒng xiànxiàng yǒu liǎng fāngmiàn de yuányīn.
Two things account for the occurrence.

7

学费

学费〔學費〕
xuéfèi
1 tuition fee; tuition

交学费
jiāo xuéfèi
pay tuition
2 a price for what one has learned to one's cost

8

支持

支持
zhīchí
1 sustain; hold out; bear

他冻得支持不住了。
Tā dòng de zhīchí bù zhù le.
He was so cold he couldn't hold out any longer.
2 support; back; stand by

在国际上得到越来越广泛的支持
Zài guójì shàng dédào yuèláiyuè guǎngfàn de zhīchí
enjoy wider and wider international support

支持被压迫人民的斗争
zhīchí bèi yāpò rénmín de dòuzhēng
support the struggle of the oppressed peoples

给予坚决的支持
jǐyǔ jiānjué de zhīchí
give strong backing to

全世界各国人民的正义斗争, 都是互相支持的。
Quánshìjiè gèguó rénmín de zhèngyì dòuzhēng, dōu shì hùxiāng zhīchí de.
The just struggles of the people of all countries support each other.

我完全支持这个建议。
Wǒ wánquán zhīchí zhège jiànyì.
I am all for this proposal.

9

劳动力

劳动力〔勞動-〕
láodònglì
1 labour (or work) force; labour

劳动力调配
láodònglì diàopèi
allocation of the labour force

劳动力不足
láodònglì bùzú
short of manpower; shorthanded
2 capacity for physical labour

丧失劳动力
sàngshī láodònglì
lose one's ability to work; be rendered unfit for physical labour; be incapacitated; be disabled
3 able-bodied person ▶ 强劳动力 qiángláodònglì

10

集体

集体〔-體〕
jítǐ
collective

集体的智慧
jítǐ de zhìhuì
collective wisdom

一个战斗的集体
yī ge zhàndòu de jítǐ
a militant collective

荣立集体二等功
rónglì jítǐ èrděnggōng
gain a Collective Award of Merit, Second Class

集体创作
jítǐ chuàngzuò
collective effort in literary or artistic creation

集体观念
jítǐ guānniàn
collective spirit

11

岗位

岗位〔崗-〕
gǎngwèi
post; station

战斗岗位
zhàndòu gǎngwèi
fighting post; battle station

坚守岗位
jiānshǒu gǎngwèi
stand fast at one's post; stick to one's guns

走上新的岗位
zǒu shàng xīn de gǎngwèi
take up a new post; take on a new job

12

义务

义务〔義務〕
yìwù
1 duty; obligation

子女对父母有赡养的义务。
Zǐnǚ duì fùmǔ yǒu shànyǎng de yìwù.
Children have the duty to support their parents.

公民的基本权利与义务
Gōngmín de jīběn quánlì yǔ yìwù
the fundamental rights and duties of citizens

条约规定的义务
tiáoyuē guīdìng de yìwù
treaty obligations

履行所承担的义务
lǚxíng suǒ chéngdān de yìwù
carry out commitments
2 volunteer; voluntary

我是来尽义务的。
Wǒ shì lái jìn yìwù de.
I've come to do voluntary service.

13

组长

组长〔組長〕
zǔzhǎng
group leader

14

也许

也许〔-許〕
yěxǔ
ADVERBperhaps; probably; maybe

他也许病了。
Tā yěxǔ bìng le.
Perhaps he's ill.

我也许来, 也许不来。
Wǒ yěxǔ lái, yěxǔ bù lái.
I may or may not come.

也许我不该告诉他的。
Yěxǔ wǒ bù gāi gàosu tā de.
Perhaps I shouldn't have told him.

15

强〔強/彊〕
qiáng
1 strong; powerful

身强体壮
Shēn qiáng tǐ zhuàng
strong and healthy

能力很强
nénglì hěn qiáng
very capable

责任心强
zérènxīn qiáng
have a strong sense of responsibility

强冷空气
qiáng lěng kōngqì
a strong cold air current

决赛时两强将有一场恶战。
Juésài shí liǎng qiáng jiāng yǒu yī cháng èzhàn.
There'll be a fierce struggle between the two strong teams.
2 by force

强取
qiángqǔ
take by force
3 better

我们的劳动条件一年比一年强。
Wǒmen de láodòng tiáojiàn yī nián bǐ yī nián qiáng.
Our working conditions are getting better each year.
4 slightly more than; plus

三分之一强
Sānfēn zhīyī qiáng
slightly more than one third
See jiàng qiǎng

16

懂得

懂得
dǒngde
understand; know; grasp

懂得革命道理
Dǒngde gémìng dàoli
understand revolutionary principles

你懂得这句话的意思吗?
Nǐ dǒngde zhè jù huà de yìsi ma?
Do you understand the meaning of this sentence?

这一事件使我们更清楚地懂得了问题的复杂性。
Zhè yī shìjiàn shǐ wǒmen gèng qīngchu de dǒngde le wèntí de fùzáxìng.
This incident brought home to us the complex nature of the problem.

用群众所熟悉和懂得的词句
Yòng qúnzhòng suǒ shúxī hé dǒngde de cíjù
use words which are familiar and intelligible to the masses

17

减轻

减轻〔減輕〕
jiǎnqīng
lighten; ease; alleviate; mitigate

减轻国家的负担
jiǎnqīng guójiā de fùdān
lighten the burden on the state

减轻劳动强度
jiǎnqīng láodòng qiángdù
reduce labour intensity

减轻病人的痛苦
jiǎnqīng bìngrén de tòngkǔ
alleviate (or ease) a patient's suffering

减轻处分
jiǎnqīng chǔfèn
mitigate a punishment

18

减〔減〕
jiǎn
1 subtract

九减四得五。
Jiǔ jiǎn sì dé wǔ.
Nine minus four is five. or Four from nine is five.
2 reduce; decrease; cut

工作热情有增无减
Gōngzuò rèqíng yǒuzēngwújiǎn
work with ever increasing zeal

19

当Dāng

PREPOSITIONjust at (a time or place)

当莫扎特只有四岁的时候, 就在写一些小步舞曲了。
Dāng mò zhā tè zhǐ yǒu sì suì de shíhou, jiù zài xiě yīxiē xiǎo bù wǔqǔ le.
When only four, Mozart was composing minuets.

20


pào
1 bubble

肥皂泡儿
féizàopàor
soap bubbles

冒泡儿
màopàor
send up bubbles; rise in bubbles
2 sth. shaped like a bubble

手上起了泡
shǒushang qǐ le pào
get (or raise) blisters on one's palm
3 steep; soak

把种子放在温水里泡一下
bǎ zhǒngzi fàng zài wēnshuǐ lǐ pào yīxià
steep the seeds in lukewarm water

他是在苦水里泡大的。
Tā shì zài kǔshuǐ lǐ pào dà de.
He was brought up in bitter misery.
4 dawdle

别泡时间了, 快把工作做完!
Bié pào shíjiān le, kuài bǎ gōngzuò zuò wán!
Stop dawdling and finish your work!
See pāo

21


róu
1 rub

别揉眼睛。
Bié róu yǎnjing.
Don't rub your eyes.

揉一揉腿
Róu yī róu tuǐ
rub one's legs
2 knead; roll

揉面
róumiàn
knead dough

把泥揉成小球
bǎ ní róu chéng xiǎo qiú
roll the earth into small balls

把信揉成一团
bǎ xìn róu chéng yī tuán
crumple a letter into a ball
3
FORMALbend; twist

22


shēn
1 deep

一口深井
yī kǒu shēnjǐng
a deep well

雪深过膝
xuě shēn guò xī
knee-deep snow

林深苔滑。
Lín shēn tái huá.
The forest is thick and the moss is slippery.
2 depth

测量水深
Cèliáng shuǐshēn
sound (or plumb) the depth of the water

这间大厅有三米宽、五米深。
Zhè jiān dàtīng yǒu sān mǐ kuān, wǔ mǐ shēn.
This hall is 3 m. wide and 5 m. deep (or 3 m. in width and 5 m. in depth).

这山洞有多深?
Zhè shāndòng yǒu duō shēn?
What is the depth of the cave?
3 hard to understand; difficult; abstruse; profound

这本书给孩子们看太深了。
Zhè běn shū gěi háizi men kàn tài shēn le.
The book is too difficult for children.
4 thoroughgoing; penetrating; profound

问题想得很深
Wèntí xiǎng de hěn shēn
think deeply about a question

功夫深
gōngfu shēn
have put in a great deal of effort
5 (of relations or feelings) close; intimate

交情深
jiāo qíng shēn
be very close; be on intimate terms

他们之间的感情已经很深了。
Tāmen zhījiān de gǎnqíng yǐjing hěn shēn le.
They are already deeply in love with each other.
6 (of colour) dark; deep; rich

深蓝
shēnlán
dark blue

深红
shēnhóng
deep red; crimson

颜色太深。
Yánsè tài shēn.
The colour is too dark (or deep).
7 far on in the day, night, season, etc.; late

夜深了。
Yèshēn le.
It was in the dead of night (or late at night).
8
ADVERBvery; greatly; deeply

深知
shēnzhī
know very well; be fully (or keenly) aware

深受感动
shēnshòu gǎndòng
be deeply moved; be greatly touched

深感不安
shēngǎn bù'ān
be greatly disturbed; be very much worried

深表同情
shēnbiǎo tóngqíng
show deep (or profound) sympathy

深得人心
shēndérénxīn
enjoy immense popular support

深恐出事
shēnkǒng chūshì
be terribly afraid that something may go wrong

23

拼命

2 exerting the utmost strength; for all one is worth; with all one's might; desperately

拼命奔跑
Pīnmìng bēnpǎo
run for all one is worth

拼命工作
pīnmìng gōngzuò
work with all one's might

拼命获取利润
pīnmìng huòqǔ lìrùn
do one's utmost to get as much profit as possible

24



1 skin; rind; peel

香蕉皮
xiāngjiāopí
banana skin

土豆皮
tǔdòu pí
potato peel

西瓜皮
xīguāpí
watermelon rind

荞麦皮
qiáomàipí
buckwheat husk

擦破一块皮
cā pò yī kuài pí
scrape a bit of skin off
2 leather; hide; fur

皮靴
píxuē
leather boots

皮大衣
pídàyī
fur coat
3 cover; wrapper

包袱皮儿
bāofupír
cloth-wrapper
4 surface

飘在水皮儿上
piāo zài shuǐ pír shàng
float on the surface of the water
5 a broad, flat piece (of some thin material); sheet

白铁皮
báitiě pí
galvanized iron sheet; tinplate
6 become soft and soggy

花生皮了。
Huāshēng pí le.
The peanuts aren't crisp any more.
7 naughty

这孩子真皮!
Zhè háizi zhēnpí!
What a naughty child!
8 case-hardened

他老挨剋, 都皮了。
Tā lǎo ái kè, dōu pí le.
He gets scolded so often that he no longer cares.
9 rubber ▶ 皮筋儿 píjīnr
10 (Pí) a surname

25

却〔卻〕
PY què
ADVERBbut; yet

她有许多话要说, 一时却什么也说不出来。
Tā yǒu xǔduō huà yào shuō, yīshí què shénme yě shuō bù chūlai.
She had a lot to say, but at the time she was unable to utter a word.

文章虽短却很有力。
Wénzhāng suī duǎn què hěn yǒu lì.
The essay is short but forceful.

这样推理很周全, 却说服不了我。
Zhèyàng tuīlǐ hěn zhōuquán, què shuōfú bùliǎo wǒ.
The logic is sound, and yet it does not convince me.

26

吃苦

吃苦
chīkǔ
bear hardships

怕吃苦, 就干不成大事。
Pà chīkǔ, jiù gàn bù chéng dàshì.
Those who fear hardships will not accomplish anything great.

他小时候吃了不少苦。
Tā xiǎoshíhou chī le bùshǎo kǔ.
He suffered a great deal in his childhood.

27

轻松

轻松〔輕鬆〕
qīngsōng
light; relaxed

轻松的工作
Qīngsōng de gōngzuò
light work; soft job; cushy job

轻松地打败对手
qīngsōng de dǎbài duìshǒu
beat one's opponent with ease

我们过了一个轻松愉快的暑假。
Wǒmen guò le yī ge qīngsōng yúkuài de shǔjià.
We had a happy and relaxed summer vacation.

写完了初稿, 她觉得心里轻松多了。
Xiě wán le chūgǎo, tā juéde xīnli qīngsōng duō le.
After finishing the first draft, she felt more relaxed.

扎针以后, 他的腿部有轻松的感觉。
Zhāzhēn yǐhòu, tā de tuǐ bù yǒu qīngsōng de gǎnjué.
After the acupuncture treatment, his leg felt relieved.

28

坚持

坚持〔堅-〕
jiānchí
persist in ; persevere in ; uphold; insist on; stick to ; adhere to

坚持原则
jiānchí yuánzé
adhere (or stick) to principle

坚持真理
jiānchí zhēnlǐ
hold firmly to the truth

坚持上次会议上提出的条件
jiānchí shàng cì huìyì shàng tíchū de tiáojiàn
insist on the terms put forward at the previous session

坚持己见
jiānchí jǐjiàn
hold on to one's own views

坚持错误
jiānchí cuòwù
persist in one's errors

你应该坚持做早操。
Nǐ yīnggāi jiānchí zuò zǎocāo.
You must persevere in doing morning exercises.

救援队希望船里的人能坚持到他们赶来。
Jiùyuán duì xīwàng chuán lǐ de rén néng jiānchí dào tāmen gǎnlái.
The rescue team hoped that the men in the boat could hold out till they arrived.

再走十里, 坚持得了吗?
Zài zǒu shí lǐ, jiānchí dé le ma?
Can you hold on for another ten li?

他坚持要走。
Tā jiānchí yào zǒu.
He insisted on leaving.

他们在阵地上坚持了三天三夜。
Tāmen zài zhèndì shàng jiānchí le sān tiān sān yè.
They held the position for three days and nights.

29

胜利

胜利〔勝-〕
shènglì
1 victory; triumph

充满了胜利的信心
chōngmǎn le shènglì de xìnxīn
be fully confident of victory

敢于斗争, 敢于胜利
gǎnyú dòuzhēng, gǎnyú shènglì
dare to struggle and dare to win

祝你们取得更大的胜利!
Zhù nǐmen qǔdé gèng dà de shènglì!
Wish you even greater successes!
2 successful; triumphant

胜利会师
Shènglì huìshī
triumphantly join forces

胜利完成任务
shènglì wánchéng rènwu
successfully carry out one's task

大会胜利闭幕。
Dàhuì shènglì bìmù.
The conference has concluded successfully.

沿着社会主义大道胜利前进
Yánzhe shèhuìzhǔyì dàdào shènglì qiánjìn
march triumphantly along the socialist road

30

旅游鞋

旅游鞋〔-遊-〕
lǚyóuxié
sneakers; walking shoes

31


cún
1 exist; live; survive

父母俱存。
Fùmǔ jù cún.
Both parents are still living.
2 store; keep

存粮
cúnliáng
store up grain

新水库存了大量的水。
Xīn shuǐkù cún le dàliàng de shuǐ.
A large quantity of water is stored in the new reservoir.

天气热, 西红柿存不住。
Tiānqì rè, xīhóngshì cún bù zhù.
Tomatoes won't keep in hot weather.
3 accumulate; collect

一下雨, 洼地里就存了好些水。
Yī xiàyǔ, wādì lǐ jiù cún le hǎo xiē shuǐ.
Whenever it rains, a lot of water accumulates in the low-lying land.
4 deposit

把钱存在银行里
Bǎ qián cún zài yínháng lǐ
deposit money in a bank
5 leave with; check

行李先存在这里, 回头再来取。
Xíngli xiān cún zài zhèlǐ, huítóu zài lái qǔ.
Let's check our luggage here and come back for it later.

存自行车
Cún zìxíngchē
leave one's bicycle in a bicycle park
6 reserve; retain

他有什么说什么, 肚子里存不住话。
Tā yǒu shénme shuō shénme, dùzi lǐ cún bù zhù huà.
He always says what he thinks; he can't hold anything back.
7 remain on balance; be in stock

收支相抵, 净存两千元。
Shōu-zhī xiāngdǐ, jìng cún liǎngqiān yuán.
The accounts show a surplus of 2,000 yuan.
8 cherish; harbour

存着很大的希望
Cún zhe hěn dà de xīwàng
cherish high hopes

不存幻想
bù cún huànxiǎng
harbour no illusions

32

难忘

难忘〔難-〕
nánwàng
unforgettable; memorable

难忘的一课
Nánwàng de yī kè
an unforgettable lesson

难忘的岁月
nánwàng de suìyuè
memorable years

当时的情景令人难忘。
Dāngshí de qíngjǐng lìng rén nánwàng.
It was so impressive that it always remained fresh in my memory.

33

争取

争取〔爭-〕
zhēngqǔ
strive for; fight for; win over

争取民族解放
Zhēngqǔ mínzú jiěfàng
strive for national liberation

争取群众
zhēngqǔ qúnzhòng
win over the masses

争取选票
zhēngqǔ xuǎnpiào
canvass for votes

争取入党
zhēngqǔ rùdǎng
strive to qualify for Party membership

争取时间
zhēngqǔ shíjiān
race (or work) against time

争取主动
zhēngqǔ zhǔdòng
try to gain the initiative; contend for the initiative

要争取一切可以争取的人, 团结一切可以团结的人。
Yào zhēngqǔ yīqiè kěyǐ zhēngqǔ de rén, tuánjié yīqiè kěyǐ tuánjié de rén.
We must win over all people who can be won over, unite with all people who can be united.

你能给我们杂志写点什么吗?——我争取吧。
Nǐ néng gěi wǒmen zázhì xiě diǎn shénme ma? —— wǒ zhēngqǔ ba.
Can you write something for the magazine? - Well, I'll try.

34

业余

业余〔業餘〕
yèyú
1 sparetime; after-hours

他利用业余时间给同志们修收音机。
Tā lìyòng yèyú shíjiān gěi tóngzhì men xiū shōuyīnjī.
He repaired radios for his comrades during his spare time.

业余爱好
yèyú àihào
hobby

业余理论学习
yèyú lǐlùn xuéxí
theoretical study after workhours
2 nonprofessional; amateur

业余文艺工作者
yèyú wényì gōngzuò zhě
amateur literary and art workers

业余剧团
yèyú jùtuán
an amateur theatrical troupe

35

请假

请假〔請-〕
qǐngjià
ask for leave

请三天假
qǐng sān tiān jià
ask for three days' leave

因病请假一天
yīn bìng qǐngjià yī tiān
ask for a day's sick leave