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Flashcards in Prac 48 Deck (51):
1

独生子女

独生子女〔獨---〕
dúshēng zǐnǚ
only child

2

独〔獨〕

1 only; single

独子
dúzǐ
only son
2
ADVERBsolely; only

大家都到了, 独有他还没来。
Dàjiā dōu dào le, dúyǒu tā hái méi lái.
He's the only one who isn't here yet.
3
ADVERBalone; by oneself; in solitude

独居
dújū
live a solitary existence

独坐
dúzuò
sit alone
4
OLDpeople without offspring; the childless ▶ 鳏寡孤独 guān-guǎ-gū-dú
5
INFORMALstandoffish

他这个人真独。
Tā zhège rén zhēn dú.
He's rather standoffish.

3

生育

生育
shēngyù
give birth to; bear

生育子女
shēngyù zǐnǚ
bear children

不能生育
bù néng shēngyù
be unable to have children; be sterile

她已过了生育年龄。
Tā yǐ guò le shēngyù niánlíng.
She is past her child-bearing age.

4

鼓励

鼓励〔-勵〕
gǔlì
encourage; urge

首长对我们讲了许多鼓励的话。
Shǒuzhǎng duì wǒmen jiǎng le xǔduō gǔlì de huà.
The leading cadres said a lot to encourage us.

老师鼓励大家学习英语。
Lǎoshī gǔlì dàjiā xuéxí Yīngyǔ.
Our teacher encouraged us to learn English.

5

夫妇

夫妇〔-婦〕
fūfù
husband and wife

新婚夫妇
xīnhūn fūfù
a newly married couple; newlyweds

6

年代

年代
niándài
1 age; years; time

战争年代
zhànzhēng niándài
during the war years

年代不详
niándài bùxiáng
without date; sine anno

年代久了, 石碑上的字迹已经模糊了。
Niándài jiǔ le, shíbēi shàng de zìjì yǐjing móhu le.
The inscriptions on the stone tablet have become blurred with the passage of time.

展出的古代文物都标明了年代。
Zhǎnchū de gǔdài wénwù dōu biāomíng le niándài.
The antiques on display are all marked with dates.
2 a decade of a century

八十年代
Bāshí niándài
the eighties

二十世纪九十年代
èrshí shìjì jiǔshí niándài
the 1990's

7

增长

增长〔-長〕
zēngzhǎng
increase; rise; grow

平均增长百分之四十
píngjūn zēngzhǎng bǎifēn zhī sìshí
register an average increase of 40%

有计划地控制人口的增长
yǒu jìhuà de kòngzhì rénkǒu de zēngzhǎng
control population growth in a planned way

持续增长
chíxù zēngzhǎng
sustained growth

增长才干
zēngzhǎng cáigàn
enhance (or develop) one's abilities

增长知识
zēngzhǎng zhīshi
broaden (or enrich) one's knowledge

产量比解放前增长了七倍半。
Chǎnliàng bǐ Jiěfàng qián zēngzhǎng le qī bèi bàn.
Output is 8.5 times what it was before liberation.

人口已无增长。
Rénkǒu yǐ wú zēngzhǎng.
The population has reached zero growth.

8

达到

达到〔達-〕
dádào
achieve; attain; reach

达到目的
dádào mùdì
achieve (or attain) the goal

达到高潮
dádào gāocháo
reach a high tide; come to a climax

达到世界先进水平
dádào shìjiè xiānjìn shuǐpíng
come up to advanced world standards

你要求太高, 我恐怕达不到。
Nǐ yāoqiú tài gāo, wǒ kǒngpà dá bùdào.
Your expectations are too high. I'm afraid I can't live up to them.

货物运输量将达到四千万吨。
Huòwù yùnshūliàng jiāng dádào sìqiān wàn dūn.
The volume of freight handled will amount to 40 million tons.

9

尽管

CONJUNCTIONthough; even though; in spite of; despite

尽管旱情严重, 今年的小麦还是丰收了。
Jǐnguǎn hànqíng yánzhòng, jīnnián de xiǎomài háishi fēngshōu le.
Despite the serious drought, the wheat harvest this year was good.

他尽管身体不好, 仍然坚持工作。
Tā jǐnguǎn shēntǐ bù hǎo, réngrán jiānchí gōngzuò.
Though he's not in good health, he still keeps on working.

我喜欢这个工作, 尽管报酬很低。
Wǒ xǐhuan zhège gōngzuò, jǐnguǎn bàochou hěn dī.
I like the job, even though it's badly paid.

10

以来

以来〔-來〕
yǐlái
PARTICLEsince

建国以来
jiànguó yǐlái
since the founding of the People's Republic

长期以来
chángqīyǐlái
for a long time past

三年以来
sān nián yǐlái
in the past three years

自古以来
zìgǔ yǐlái
ever since the ancient times

11

政策

政策
zhèngcè
policy

政策教育
zhèngcè jiàoyù
education in policy

提高政策水平
tígāo zhèngcè shuǐpíng
enhance the understanding of policy

划清政策界限
huàqīng zhèngcè jièxiàn
draw clear lines of demarcation in applying a policy

12

控制

控制
kòngzhì
control; dominate; command

控制人口增长
kòngzhì rénkǒu zēngzhǎng
control population growth

控制货币发行
kòngzhì huòbì fāxíng
control monetary issue

控制局面
kòngzhì júmiàn
have the situation under control

控制险要
kòngzhì xiǎnyào
command a strategic position

她控制不住自己的感情。
Tā kòngzhì bù zhù zìjǐ de gǎnqíng.
She lost control of her emotions.

控制地面沉降
Kòngzhì dìmiàn chénjiàng
bring surface subsidence under control

控制产量, 提高质量
kòngzhì chǎnliàng, tígāo zhìliàng
restrict the output and improve the quality

他发起脾气来自己也不能够控制。
Tā fāqǐ píqi lái zìjǐ yě bù nénggòu kòngzhì.
He can't control himself when he loses his temper.

13



rate; proportion; ratio

人口增长率
rénkǒu zēngzhǎnglǜ
the rate of population growth

圆周率
yuánzhōulǜ
the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter
See shuài

14

平均

平均
píngjūn
1 average; mean

平均寿命
píngjūn shòumìng
average life span; life expectancy

平均速度
píngjūn sùdù
average speed; mean velocity

平均亩产量
píngjūn mǔchǎnliàng
per mu yield

按人口平均计算收入
àn rénkǒu píngjūn jìsuàn shōurù
per capita income

平均每年增长百分之五
píngjūn měi nián zēngzhǎng bǎifēn zhī wǔ
increase by an average of 5% a year
2 equally; share and share alike

平均分摊
píngjūn fēntān
share out equally

15

保持

保持
bǎochí
keep; maintain; preserve

保持安静
Bǎochí ānjìng
keep quiet

保持冷静的头脑
bǎochí lěngjìng de tóunǎo
keep a cool head; keep cool

跟群众保持密切联系
gēn qúnzhòng bǎochí mìqiè liánxì
keep close to the masses

保持中立
bǎochí zhōnglì
remain neutral; maintain neutrality

保持警惕
bǎochí jǐngtì
maintain vigilance; be on the alert

保持艰苦奋斗的作风
bǎochí jiānkǔfèndòu de zuòfēng
preserve (or keep up) the style of plain living and hard struggle

保持跳高记录
bǎochí tiàogāo jìlù
retain the high jump record

16

其实

其实〔-實〕
qíshí
ADVERBactually; in fact; as a matter of fact

其实情况不是那样。
Qíshí qíngkuàng bù shì nàyàng.
Actually, that is not the case.

这台机器看起来复杂, 其实不难掌握。
Zhè tái jīqì kàn qǐlai fùzá, qíshí bù nán zhǎngwò.
This machine looks complicated, but it's really not difficult to operate.

你们只知道她会说英语, 其实她的日语也挺好。
Nǐmen zhǐ zhīdao tā huì shuō Yīngyǔ, qíshí tā de Rìyǔ yě tǐng hǎo.
You only know that she can speak English. As a matter of fact, her Japanese is pretty good too.

还要讨论?其实没有这个必要。
Hái yào tǎolùn? Qíshí méiyǒu zhège bìyào.
Why have another discussion? I don't think there's any need for it.

何必大家掏钱?其实让我做东得了。
Hébì dàjiā tāoqián? Qíshí ràng wǒ zuòdōng déliǎo.
Why go Dutch? Let me play the host.

17

交通

交通
jiāotōng
1 be connected; be linked

阡陌交通。
Qiānmòjiāotōng.
Linking paths lead everywhere.
2 traffic; communications

公路交通
Gōnglù jiāotōng
highway traffic

陆上交通
lùshàng jiāotōng
land traffic

市区交通
shìqū jiāotōng
urban traffic

交通便利
jiāotōng biànlì
have transport facilities

妨碍交通
Fáng'ài jiāotōng
interfere with the traffic
3 liaison; liaison man

交通员
jiāotōngyuán
liaison man; underground messenger

18

传统

传统〔傳統〕
chuántǒng
tradition

发扬优良传统
Fāyáng yōuliáng chuántǒng
carry on a fine tradition

革命传统
gémìng chuántǒng
revolutionary tradition

传统友谊
chuántǒng yǒuyì
traditional (ties of) friendship

传统观念
chuántǒng guānniàn
traditional ideas

传统剧目
chuántǒng jùmù
traditional theatrical pieces

19

重男轻女

重男轻女〔--輕-〕
zhòngnán-qīngnǚ
regard men as superior to women

20

客观

客观〔-觀〕
kèguān
objective

客观存在
kèguān cúnzài
objective reality (or fact, existence)

客观事物
kèguān shìwù
objective things (or reality); objectively existing things

客观条件
kèguān tiáojiàn
objective conditions

客观性
kèguānxìng
objectivity

客观形势
kèguān xíngshì
objective situation

他看问题比较客观。
Tā kàn wèntí bǐjiào kèguān.
He looks at problems objectively.

客观地讲
Kèguān de jiǎng
objectively speaking; objectively

21

分析

分析
fēnxi
analyse

分析句子成分
fēnxi jùzi chéngfen
parse a sentence

培养分析问题和解决问题的能力
péiyǎng fēnxi wèntí hé jiějué wèntí de nénglì
cultivate the ability to analyse and solve problems

善于分析形势
shànyú fēnxi xíngshì
be proficient in sizing up a situation

老师把这篇课文分析得很精辟。
Lǎoshī bǎ zhè piān kèwén fēnxi de hěn jīngpì.
The teacher made a penetrating analysis of the text.

22

稍微

稍微
shāowēi
ADVERBa little; a bit; slightly; a trifle

稍微搁点盐
shāowēi gē diǎn yán
put in a little salt

今天稍微有点冷。
Jīntiān shāowēi yǒudiǎn lěng.
It's rather chilly today.

稍微有点惊慌
Shāowēi yǒudiǎn jīnghuāng
be a trifle alarmed

这种颜色比那种稍微深一点。
Zhèzhǒng yánsè bǐ nà zhǒng shāowēi shēn yīdiǎn.
This colour is just a shade darker than that one.

VARIANTS
稍为〔稍為〕 shāowéi
稍许〔稍許〕 shāoxǔ

23

丁克

丁克/客
dīngkè
Dual Income, No Kids (DINK) (loanword)

VARIANTS
顶客〔頂客〕 dǐngkè

24

养儿防老

养儿防老〔養兒--〕
yǎng'érfánglǎo
(of parents) to bring up children for the purpose of being looked after in old age

25

长期

长期〔長-〕
chángqī
over a long period of time; long-term; long-lasting

长期规划
Chángqī guīhuà
a long-term plan

长期天气预报
chángqī tiānqì yùbào
a long-range weather forecast

长期存在的问题
chángqī cúnzài de wèntí
a long-standing problem

长期无息贷款
chángqī wúxī dàikuǎn
a long-term interest-free loan

长期战争
chángqī zhànzhēng
a protracted war

作长期打算
zuò chángqī dǎsuan
take a long view; make long-term plans

经受长期斗争锻炼
jīngshòu chángqī dòuzhēng duànliàn
be tempered in long years of struggle

长期的战乱给人民带来极大的苦难。
Chángqī de zhànluàn gěi rénmín dàilái jí dà de kǔnàn.
The long-drawn-out war caused the people extreme suffering.

26

农业

农业〔農業〕
nóngyè
agriculture; farming

农业机械
nóngyè jīxiè
agricultural machinery; farm machinery

农业人口
nóngyè rénkǒu
people engaged in agriculture; agricultural population

农业投入
nóngyè tóurù
agricultural input

27

居民

居民
jūmín
resident; inhabitant

城镇居民
chéngzhèn jūmín
residents in cities and towns; urban residents

28

出现

出现〔-現〕
chūxiàn
appear; arise; emerge

天上出现一片乌云。
Tiānshàng chūxiàn yī piàn wūyún.
Black clouds appeared in the sky.

她的出现使人感到意外。
Tā de chūxiàn shǐ rén gǎndào yìwài.
Her appearance was quite unexpected.

出现了新情况。
Chūxiàn le xīn qíngkuàng.
A new situation arose.

工地上出现了你追我赶的社会主义竞赛场面。
Gōngdì shàng chūxiàn le nǐzhuīwǒgǎn de shèhuìzhǔyì jìngsài chǎngmiàn.
The construction site presented an exciting scene of each one vying with the other in the socialist emulation campaign.

我们将以一个具有高度文化的民族出现于世界。
Wǒmen jiāng yǐ yī ge jùyǒu gāodù wénhuà de mínzú chūxiàn yú shìjiè.
We shall take our place in the world as a nation with an advanced culture.

29

保险

保险〔-險〕
bǎoxiǎn
1 insurance

人寿(海损)保险
rénshòu(hǎisǔn)bǎoxiǎn
life (maritime) insurance

你的汽车保了险没有?
Nǐ de qìchē bǎo le xiǎn méiyǒu?
Is your car insured?

保了火险
bǎo le huǒxiǎn
have insured against fire
2 safe

骑车太快可不保险。
Qíchē tài kuài kě bù bǎoxiǎn.
It's not safe to cycle too fast.

你还是带上雨衣吧, 保险点儿。
Nǐ hái shì dài shàng yǔyī ba, bǎoxiǎn diǎnr.
You'd better take your raincoat just to be on the safe side.
3 be sure; be bound to

他明天保险会来。
Tā míngtiān bǎoxiǎn huì lái.
He is sure to come tomorrow.

保险能行!
Bǎoxiǎn néng xíng!
It's bound to work.

你依我的话, 保险不会出错。
Nǐ yī wǒ de huà, bǎoxiǎn bù huì chūcuò.
If you follow my advice, then I can assure you that nothing will go wrong.

30

制度

制度
zhìdù
system; institution

教育制度
jiàoyù zhìdù
system of education

奴隶制度
núlì zhìdù
the institution of slavery

31

形式

形式
xíngshì
form; shape

艺术形式
yìshù xíngshì
art form

组织形式
zǔzhī xíngshì
organizational makeup

以公开信形式提出建议
yǐ gōngkāixìn xíngshì tíchū jiànyì
put suggestions in the form of an open letter

那次选举只不过是个形式。
Nà cì xuǎnjǔ zhǐ buguò shì ge xíngshì.
The elections were conducted only as a matter of form.

形式地看问题
Xíngshì de kàn wèntí
consider a question in a mechanical way

32

总数

总数〔總數〕
zǒngshù
total; sum total

33

实际

实际〔實際〕
shíjì
1 reality; practice

理论和实际
lǐlùn hé shíjì
theory and practice

客观实际
kèguān shíjì
objective reality

切合当地实际
qièhé dāngdì shíjì
suit the local conditions

从实际出发
cóng shíjì chūfā
proceed from actual conditions; be realistic

实际上
shíjìshang
in fact; in practice; in reality; actually

思想落后于实际的事是常有的。
Sīxiǎng luòhòu yú shíjì de shì shì cháng yǒu de.
It often happens that thinking lags behind reality.

青年人一接触生活, 实际理想往往就会破灭。
Qīngniánrén yī jiēchù shēnghuó, shíjì lǐxiǎng wǎngwǎng jiù huì pòmiè.
Young people's idealism is often destroyed when they experience life's practicalities.
2 practical; realistic

实际经验
shíjì jīngyàn
practical experience

你这种想法不实际。
Nǐ zhèzhǒng xiǎngfa bù shíjì.
This idea of yours is unrealistic.

把革命气概和实际精神结合起来
Bǎ gémìng qìgài hé shíjì jīngshén jiéhé qǐlai
combine revolutionary sweep with practicality
3 real; actual; concrete

实际的例子
shíjì de lìzi
a concrete instance

实际情况
shíjì qíngkuàng
the actual situation; reality

实际生活水平
shíjì shēnghuó shuǐpíng
the real standard of living

实际收入
shíjì shōurù
real income

34

大概

大概
dàgài
1 general idea; broad outline

我只知道个大概。
Wǒ zhǐ zhīdao ge dàgài.
I have only a general idea.

我大概跟他说了说。
Wǒ dàgài gēn tā shuō le shuō.
I told him briefly.
2 general; rough; approximate

作一个大概的分析
Zuò yī ge dàgài de fēnxi
make a general analysis

大概的数字
dàgài de shùzì
an approximate figure

大概的估计
dàgài de gūjì
a rough estimate
3
ADVERBprobably; most likely; presumably

会议大概要延期。
Huìyì dàgài yào yánqī.
The meeting will probably be postponed.

你大概知道他吧。
Nǐ dàgài zhīdao tā ba.
Presumably you know him.

大概将有五百人出席。
Dàgài jiāng yǒu wǔbǎi rén chūxí.
There will be approximately 500 people present.

35

违反

违反〔違-〕
wéifǎn
violate; run counter to; transgress; infringe

违反政策
wéifǎn zhèngcè
run counter to the policy

违反纪律
wéifǎn jìlǜ
violate discipline

违反交通规则
wéifǎn jiāotōng guīzé
violate traffic regulations

违反刑法
wéifǎn xíngfǎ
commit a criminal offence

违反事实
wéifǎn shìshí
fly in the face of facts

违反历史潮流
wéifǎn lìshǐ cháoliú
run counter to the trend of history

违反决议的精神
wéifǎn juéyì de jīngshén
be contrary to the spirit of the resolution

违反社会发展规律
wéifǎn shèhuì fāzhǎn guīlǜ
go against the laws of social development

36

规律

规律〔規-〕
guīlǜ
law; regular pattern

客观规律
kèguān guīlǜ
objective law

历史发展的规律
lìshǐ fāzhǎn de guīlǜ
law of the development of history

自然界的规律
zìránjiè de guīlǜ
the laws of nature

生活有规律
shēnghuó yǒu guīlǜ
live a regular life

37

有利

有利
yǒulì
advantageous; beneficial; favourable

有利于国计民生
yǒulì yú guójìmínshēng
be beneficial to the national economy and the people's livelihood

向有利于人民的方向发展
xiàng yǒulì yú rénmín de fāngxiàng fāzhǎn
develop in a direction favourable to the people

有利于改进领导作风
yǒulì yú gǎijìn lǐngdǎo zuòfēng
help improve the style of leadership

有利于世界和平
yǒulì yú shìjiè hépíng
be in the interest of world peace

形势对我们有利。
Xíngshì duì wǒmen yǒulì.
The situation is to our advantage.

有利地形
yǒulì dìxíng
favourable terrain

有利时机
yǒulì shíjī
opportune time

有利条件
yǒulì tiáojiàn
favourable conditions or terms

38

专家

专家〔專-〕
zhuānjiā
expert; specialist

水稻专家
shuǐdào zhuānjiā
expert in rice-growing

眼科专家
yǎnkē zhuānjiā
ophthalmologist; eye specialist

39

说明

说明〔說-〕
shuōmíng
1 explain; illustrate

说明机器的用法
Shuōmíng jīqì de yòng fǎ
explain how a machine works

举例说明
jǔlìshuōmíng
illustrate by examples

说明理由
shuōmíng lǐyóu
give reasons

说明真相
shuōmíng zhēnxiàng
give the facts

代表团认为有必要说明自己的立场。
Dàibiǎotuán rènwéi yǒu bìyào shuōmíng zìjǐ de lìchǎng.
The delegation deems it necessary to state its position.
2 show; prove

事实充分说明这种做法是正确的。
Shìshí chōngfèn shuōmíng zhèzhǒng zuòfǎ shì zhèngquè de.
The results show clearly that this procedure is correct.
3 explanation; directions; caption

图片下边附有说明。
Túpiàn xiàbian fùyǒu shuōmíng.
There is a caption under the picture.

40

储存

储存〔儲-〕
chǔcún
lay in; lay up; store; stockpile; deposit

储存余粮
Chǔcún yúliáng
store up surplus grain

储存战略物资
chǔcún zhànlüè wùzī
stockpile strategic materials

把钱储存在银行里
bǎ qián chǔcún zài yínháng lǐ
deposit the money in a bank

41

粮食

粮食〔糧-〕
liángshi
grain; cereals; food

42


quē
1 be short of; lack

缺人
quērén
be short of hands

庄稼缺水缺肥就长不好。
Zhuāngjia quēshuǐ quē féi jiù cháng bù hǎo.
Lacking manure and water, crops won't grow well.

这种原料较缺。
Zhèzhǒng yuánliào jiào quē.
This kind of raw material is rather scarce.

这本书缺两页。
Zhè běn shū quē liǎng yè.
Two pages are missing from this book.

这些条件缺一不可。
Zhèxiē tiáojiàn quēyībùkě.
Not a single one of these conditions can be dispensed with.

我们队可不能缺了小林。
Wǒmen duì kě bù néng quē le xiǎo lín.
Our team can't do without Xiao Lin.
2 incomplete; imperfect ▶ 残缺 cánquē
3 be absent

人都到齐了, 一个不缺。
Rén dōu dào qí le, yī ge bù quē.
No one is absent. Everybody's here.
4 vacancy; opening ▶ 空缺 kòngquē

43

积谷防饥

积谷防饥〔積穀-飢〕
jī gǔ fáng jī
store up grain against famine

44

晒〔曬〕
shài
1 (of the sun) shine upon

日晒雨淋
rìshàiyǔlín
be exposed to the sun and rain

这里晒得慌。
Zhèlǐ shài de huāng.
There's too much sun here.
2 dry in the sun; bask

晒粮食
Shài liángshi
dry grain in the sun

晒被子
shài bèizi
air a quilt

他的脸晒黑了。
Tā de liǎn shài hēi le.
His face is tanned.

放在太阳底下晒晒。
Fàng zài tàiyáng dǐxia shài shài.
Leave it to dry in the sun.

45

佩服

佩服
pèifu
esteem; admire

他机智勇敢, 令人佩服。
Tā jīzhì yǒnggǎn, lìng rén pèifu.
One must admire his resourcefulness and courage.

大家对他的高超演技佩服得不得了。
Dàjiā duì tā de gāochāo yǎnjì pèifu de bùdéliǎo.
Everyone was filled with admiration at his wonderful acting.

我从心底里佩服她。
Wǒ cóng xīndǐ lǐ pèifu tā.
I admire her from the bottom of my heart.

46

了不起

了不起
liǎobuqǐ
amazing; terrific; extraordinary

了不起的成就
Liǎobuqǐ de chéngjiù
an amazing achievement

他真了不起。
Tā zhēn liǎobuqǐ.
He's really terrific.

没什么了不起。
Méi shénme liǎobuqǐ.
There's nothing so terrific.

有些人出了一点力就觉得了不起。
Yǒuxiē rén chū le yīdiǎn lì jiù juéde liǎobuqǐ.
There are people who swell with pride whenever they make some small contribution.

47

主持人

主持人
zhǔchírén
1 TV or radio presenter
2 host
3 anchor

48


àn
bank; shore; coast

江岸
jiāng'àn
the bank of a river; river bank

上岸
shàng'àn
go ashore

小河两岸柳树成行。
Xiǎohé liǎng'àn liǔshù chéngháng.
On either bank of the stream stand rows of willow trees.

FORMAL
1 lofty; tall and big ▶ 伟岸 wěi'àn
2 proud ▶ 傲岸 ào'àn

49

歌星

歌星
gēxīng
a singing star

50

劝〔勸〕
quàn
1 advise; urge; try to persuade

劝他戒烟
quàn tā jièyān
advise him to give up (or quit) smoking

劝他休息
quàn tā xiūxi
urge him to take a rest

我劝了半天, 他就是不听。
Wǒ quàn le bàntiān, tā jiù shì bù tīng.
I spent a long time trying to talk him round, but he just wouldn't listen.

我们劝他别去了。
Wǒmen quàn tā bié qù le.
We tried to persuade him not to go.
2 encourage ▶ 劝学 quànxué
3 comfort

他心里不好受, 你去劝劝吧。
Tā xīnli bù hǎoshòu, nǐ qù quàn quàn ba.
He's feeling bad; please go and say a few words to comfort him.

51

负增长

负增长〔負-長〕
fùzēngzhǎng
1 negative growth
2 economic recession