Prac 46 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Prac 46 Deck (31):
1

负担

负担〔負擔〕
fùdān
1 bear (a burden); shoulder

旅费由东道国负担。
Lǚfèi yóu dōngdàoguó fùdān.
All the travelling expenses will be borne by the host country.
2 burden; load; encumbrance

财政负担
Cáizhèng fùdān
financial burden

家庭负担
jiātíng fùdān
family burden (esp. financial)

工作负担
gōngzuò fùdān
workload

思想负担
sīxiǎng fùdān
a load on one's mind; mental burden

减轻学生负担
jiǎnqīng xuésheng fùdān
lighten the students' load

解除精神负担
jiěchú jīngshén fùdān
free one's mind of encumbrances

2

调查

调查〔調-〕
diàochá
investigate; inquire into; look into; survey

作社会调查
Zuò shèhuì diàochá
make a social investigation

调查原因
diàochá yuányīn
investigate the cause

农村调查
nóngcūn diàochá
rural survey

调查报告
diàochá bàogào
findings report

调查会
diàocháhuì
fact-finding meeting

调查提纲
diàochá tígāng
outline for investigation; questionnaire

调查团
diàochá tuán
fact-finding mission

3

10 (used before a numeral) first

头一遍
Tóu yī biàn
the first time

头半场比赛
tóu bàn chǎng bǐsài
the first half of a game

头三天
tóu sān tiān
the first three days

头两排位子
tóu liǎng pái wèizi
the two front rows of seats

他跑了个百米头一名。
Tā pǎo le ge bǎi mǐ tóu yī míng.
He came in first in the 100-metre dash.

4

家长

家长〔-長〕
jiāzhǎng
1 the head of a family; patriarch
2 the parent or guardian of a child

学校里明天开家长会。
Xuéxiào lǐ míngtiān kāi jiāzhǎnghuì.
There will be a parents' meeting in our school tomorrow.

5

作业

作业〔-業〕
zuòyè
1 school assignment

做作业
zuò zuòyè
do one's assignment

改作业
gǎi zuòyè
correct students' papers
2 work; task; operation; production

水下作业
shuǐ xià zuòyè
underwater operation

野外作业
yěwài zuòyè
fieldwork; field operation

农业主要作业机械化
nóngyè zhǔyào zuòyè jīxièhuà
mechanization in all major processes of farm work

作业班
zuòyèbān
work team

作业计划
zuòyè jìhuà
production plan

作业区
zuòyèqū
operation area

作业线
zuòyèxiàn
production line

6

本来

本来〔-來〕
běnlái
1 original

本来的意思
běnlái de yìsi
original meaning (or intention)

事物本来的辩证法
shìwù běnlái de biànzhèngfǎ
the dialectics inherent in things
2
ADVERBoriginally; at first

大会本来定星期五举行。
Dàhuì běnlái dìng Xīngqīwǔ jǔxíng.
The meeting was originally fixed for Friday.

他本来身体很瘦弱。
Tā běnlái shēntǐ hěn shòuruò.
He used to be thin and weak.
3
ADVERBit goes without saying; of course

本来就该这样办。
Běnlái jiù gāi zhèyàng bàn.
Of course it should be handled that way.

你本来用不着着急。
Nǐ běnlái yòngbuzháo zháojí.
You needn't have worried about it.

这样的事本来不应该发生。
Zhèyàng de shì běnlái bù yīnggāi fāshēng.
Such a thing should never have been allowed to happen in the first place.

7

完成

完成
wánchéng
accomplish; complete; fulfil; bring to success (or fruition)

完成任务
wánchéng rènwù
complete one's mission; accomplish a task; discharge one's duty

完成国家计划
wánchéng guójiā jìhuà
fulfil the state plan

完成生产指标
wánchéng shēngchǎn zhǐbiāo
hit the production target; fulfil the production quota

完成作业
wánchéng zuòyè
finish one's homework

他的论文完成了。
Tā de lùnwén wánchéng le.
He has finished off his thesis.

8

3 dislike; mind; complain of

嫌麻烦
xián máfan
not want to take the trouble; think it troublesome

嫌脏
xiánzāng
think sth. too dirty

嫌孩子吵
xián háizi chǎo
think the children too noisy

大家都嫌他脾气太急。
Dàjiā dōu xián tā píqi tài jí.
Everybody disliked him because of his hot temper.

你不嫌我们在这里抽烟吧?
Nǐ bù xián wǒmen zài zhèlǐ chōuyān ba?
You don't mind us smoking here, do you?

这文章内容不错, 只是文字略嫌啰唆。
Zhè wénzhāng nèiróng bùcuò, zhǐshì wénzì lüè xián luō suō.
The article is good in content, only it's a bit wordy.
1 to dislike
2 suspicion
3 resentment
4 enmity
5 abbr. for xiánfàn [嫌犯], criminal suspect
MANDARIN

9

增加

增加
zēngjiā
increase; raise; add

增加积累
zēngjiā jīlěi
increase accumulation

增加收入
zēngjiā shōurù
increase income

增加工资
zēngjiā gōngzī
get a raise in pay

增加困难
zēngjiā kùnnan
add to the difficulties; multiply the difficulties

增加复种面积
zēngjiā fùzhòng miànji
extend the area of double or triple cropping; enlarge the multiple-cropping area

增加体重
zēngjiā tǐzhòng
put on weight

增加抵抗力
zēngjiā dǐkànglì
build up one's resistance to disease

产量比去年增加一倍。
Chǎnliàng bǐ qùnián zēngjiā yī bèi.
Output is double that of last year.

报名人数由三千增加到五千。
Bàomíng rénshù yóu sānqiān zēngjiā dào wǔqiān.
The number of applicants has gone up from 3,000 to 5,000.

10

培养

培养〔-養〕
péiyǎng
1 cultivate (plants); culture (microorganisms)

培养花卉
péiyǎng huāhuì
cultivate flowers and plants

细菌培养
xìjūn péiyǎng
the culture of bacteria
2 foster, train, or develop (a certain spirit, ability, etc.) in sb.

从小培养好习惯
cóngxiǎo péiyǎng hǎo xíguàn
develop good habits from childhood days

培养对阅读的兴趣
péiyǎng duì yuèdú de xìngqù
develop an interest in reading

培养积极分子
péiyǎng jījí fènzǐ
foster activists

培养学生自学能力
péiyǎng xuésheng zìxué nénglì
train the students to study on their own

在老师的培养教育下
zài lǎoshī de péiyǎng jiàoyù xià
be nurtured and educated by the teachers

培养和造就革命事业接班人
péiyǎng hé zàojiù gémìng shìyè jiēbānrén
train and bring up successors for the revolutionary cause

11

优秀

优秀〔優-〕
yōuxiù
outstanding; excellent; splendid; fine

优秀作品
yōuxiù zuòpǐn
(literary or artistic) works of excellence

优秀电影
yōuxiù diànyǐng
highly rated films

优秀人才
yōuxiù réncái
talented persons

优秀生
yōuxiù shēng
excellent students

优秀的共产党员
yōuxiù de Gòngchǎndǎngyuán
an exemplary Communist

中华民族的优秀儿女
Zhōnghuá mínzú de yōuxiù ér-nǚ
worthy sons and daughters of the Chinese nation

今天打靶, 他得了个优秀。
Jīntiān dǎbǎ, tā déle ge yōuxiù.
He got an “excellent” in today's target practice.

成绩优秀
Chéngjì yōuxiù
get excellent results or marks

12

风气

风气〔風氣〕
fēngqì
general mood; atmosphere; common (or established) practice

促进整个社会风气的改变
Cùjìn zhěnggè shèhuì fēngqì de gǎibiàn
help to change the general mood of society

全厂出现了大搞技术革新的风气。
Quán chǎng chūxiàn le dà gǎo jìshù géxīn de fēngqì.
It has become the regular practice in the factory to go in for technical innovations.

13

影响

影响〔-響〕
yǐngxiǎng
1 influence; effect

月亮对潮汐的影响
yuèliang duì cháoxī de yǐngxiǎng
the influence of the moon on the tides

榜样对青年人的影响
bǎngyàng duì qīngniánrén de yǐngxiǎng
the influence of example on the young

产生巨大影响
chǎnshēng jùdà yǐngxiǎng
exert a tremendous influence; produce a great impact

消除天灾的影响
xiāochú tiānzāi de yǐngxiǎng
fight off the effects of natural calamities

这样做影响不好。
Zhèyàng zuò yǐngxiǎng bù hǎo.
This would create a bad impression.

这篇文章很有影响。
Zhè piān wénzhāng hěn yǒu yǐngxiǎng.
This article is making a strong impact.
2 affect; influence

吸烟影响健康。
Xīyān yǐngxiǎng jiànkāng.
Smoking affects health.

用自己的榜样去影响孩子
Yòng zìjǐ de bǎngyàng qù yǐngxiǎng háizi
try to influence children by personal example

影响质量
yǐngxiǎng zhìliàng
impair the quality

影响威信
yǐngxiǎng wēixìn
lower (or undermine) one's prestige

影响工程进度
yǐngxiǎng gōngchéng jìndù
hold up the project

影响群众的积极性
yǐngxiǎng qúnzhòng de jījíxìng
chill (or dampen) the enthusiasm of the masses

影响工作
yǐngxiǎng gōngzuò
interfere with one's work

别影响他复习功课。
Bié yǐngxiǎng tā fùxí gōngkè.
Don't disturb him while he is reviewing his lessons.

灯光不好会影响演出效果。
Dēngguāng bù hǎo huì yǐngxiǎng yǎnchū xiàoguǒ.
Poor lighting will spoil the stage effect.
3 hearsay; gossip

影响之谈
Yǐngxiǎng zhī tán
speaking from hearsay

14

周末

周末〔週-〕
zhōumò
weekend

我们在北戴河度过了一个愉快的周末。
Wǒmen zài běi dài hé dùguò le yī ge yúkuài de zhōumò.
We spent a lovely weekend in Beidaihe.

15

放松

放松〔-鬆〕
fàngsōng
relax; slacken; loosen

放松鞋带
Fàngsōng xiédài
loosen up the shoelaces

放松肌肉
fàngsōng jīròu
relax one's muscles

放松警惕
fàngsōng jǐngtì
relax one's vigilance

计划生育工作放松不得。
Jìhuà shēngyù gōngzuò fàngsōng bude.
We should never loosen up on the rules for family planning.

16

补习

补习〔補習〕
bǔxí
take lessons after school or work; take a make-up course

17

特长

特长〔-長〕
tècháng
what one is skilled in; strong point; speciality

他有什么特长?
Tā yǒu shénme tècháng?
What is he skilled in?

绘画不是他的特长。
Huìhuà bù shì tā de tècháng.
Painting is not his strong point.

发挥每个人的特长
Fāhuī měi ge rén de tècháng
give scope to everyone's special skill

18

要么

要么〔-麼〕
yàome
CONJUNCTIONor; either...or...

赶快给他发个电报, 要么挂个长途也行。
Gǎnkuài gěi tā fā ge diànbào, yàome guà ge chángtú yě xíng.
Send him a telegram at once, or call him long-distance.

要么她来, 要么我去, 我们总得碰个头。
Yàome tā lái, yàome wǒ qù, wǒmen zǒng děi pèng ge tóu.
Either she comes here or I go there; in any case we've got to see each other.

VARIANTS
要末 yàome

19

领导

领导〔領導〕
lǐngdǎo
1 lead; exercise leadership

在党的领导下
zài dǎng de lǐngdǎo xià
under the leadership of the Communist Party

担任领导工作
dānrèn lǐngdǎo gōngzuò
shoulder the responsibility of leadership; hold a leading position
2 leadership; leader

他是我们厂的领导。
Tā shì wǒmen chǎng de lǐngdǎo.
He's a leading cadre of our factory.

这个错误由我们领导上负责。
Zhège cuòwù yóu wǒmen lǐngdǎo shàng fùzé.
We of the leadership must accept responsibility for this mistake.

20

赞成

赞成〔贊-〕
zànchéng
1 approve of; favour; agree with; endorse

咱们明天去郊游, 你赞成吗?
Zánmen míngtiān qù jiāoyóu, nǐ zànchéng ma?
How about going on an outing tomorrow?

我完全赞成。
Wǒ wánquán zànchéng.
I'm all for it.

他最不赞成你们这样搞。
Tā zuì bù zànchéng nǐmen zhèyàng gǎo.
He doesn't like the way you do it at all.

六票赞成, 三票反对
Liù piào zànchéng, sān piào fǎnduì
six votes for and three against

赞成意见
zànchéng yìjian
assenting views

赞成的请举手。
Zànchéng de qǐng jǔshǒu.
Those in favour please raise their hands.
2
FORMALhelp sb. accomplish sth.

21

独立

独立〔獨-〕
dúlì
1 stand alone

独立山巅的苍松
dúlì shāndiān de cāngsōng
a pine tree standing alone on a mountain peak
2 independence

宣布独立
xuānbù dúlì
proclaim independence
3 independent; on one's own

独立营(团、师)
dúlì yíng (tuán, shī)
independent battalion (regiment, division)

独立分析问题和解决问题的能力
dúlì fēnxi wèntí hé jiějué wèntí de nénglì
ability to analyse and solve problems on one's own

22

坚决

坚决〔堅決〕
jiānjué
firm; resolute; determined

坚决支持
Jiānjué zhīchí
firmly support; stand firmly by

坚决反对
jiānjué fǎnduì
resolutely oppose

态度坚决
tàidu jiānjué
a determined attitude; a firm position

坚决完成任务!
Jiānjué wánchéng rènwu!
We'll carry out the task without fail!

采取坚决措施
Cǎiqǔ jiānjué cuòshī
take resolute measures

23

保证

保证〔-證〕
bǎozhèng
pledge; guarantee; assure; ensure

保证完成任务
bǎozhèng wánchéng rènwu
pledge (or guarantee) to fulfil a task

保证不再发生类似事件
bǎozhèng bùzài fāshēng lèisì shìjiàn
guarantee against the occurrence of similar incidents

我保证说到做到。
Wǒ bǎozhèng shuōdàozuòdào.
I assure you I'll do what I say.

保证供应。
Bǎozhèng gōngyìng.
There's a guaranteed supply.

谁能保证他不再犯错误。
Shuí néng bǎozhèng tā bù zài fàn cuòwù.
Nobody can say for sure he won't make any more mistakes.

保证妇女在产前产后有充分的休息。
Bǎozhèng fùnǚ zài chǎnqián chǎnhòu yǒu chōngfèn de xiūxi.
Adequate rest is ensured for women during pregnancy and after childbirth.

24

不断

不断〔-斷〕
bùduàn
unceasing; uninterrupted; continuous; constant

促进生产力的不断发展
cùjìn shēngchǎnlì de bùduàn fāzhǎn
promote the uninterrupted (or continuous) growth of the productive forces

人类社会总是不断进步的。
Rénlèi shèhuì zǒng shì bùduàn jìnbù de.
Human society makes unceasing progress.

先进单位不断涌现。
Xiānjìn dānwèi bùduàn yǒngxiàn.
Advanced units are constantly emerging.

使针刺麻醉不断完善
Shǐ zhēncì mázuì bùduàn wánshàn
bring about steady improvement in acupuncture anaesthesia

25

急忙

急忙
jímáng
in a hurry; in haste; hurriedly; hastily

你干吗这样急急忙忙的?
Nǐ gànmá zhèyàng jíjímángmáng de?
Why are you in such a hurry?

他起晚了, 没吃早饭就急忙向学校跑去。
Tā qǐ wǎn le, méi chī zǎofàn jiù jímáng xiàng xuéxiào pǎo qù.
He got up late and hurriedly ran off to school without eating any breakfast.

26

听话

听话〔聽話〕
tīnghuà
heed what an elder or superior says; be obedient

这孩子不听话。
Zhè háizi bù tīnghuà.
The child won't do as he is told. or The child doesn't behave himself.

听话, 做功课去,
Tīnghuà, zuò gōngkè qù,
Be a good boy (or girl). Go and do your homework.

27

团结

团结〔團結〕
tuánjié
unite; rally

团结一致
tuánjiéyīzhì
unite as one

团结对敌
tuánjiéduìdí
unite to oppose the enemy; close ranks to fight the enemy

团结一切可以团结的力量
tuánjié yīqiè kěyǐ tuánjié de lìliang
unite with all the forces that can be united

团结在党中央的周围
tuánjié zài dǎngzhōngyāng de zhōuwéi
rally around the Party's Central Committee

发扬团结战斗的精神
fāyáng tuánjié zhàndòu de jīngshén
carry forward the spirit of solidarity and militancy

团结就是力量。
Tuánjié jiùshì lìliàng.
Unity is strength.

团结、紧张、严肃、活泼。
Tuánjié, jǐnzhāng, yánsù, huópo.
Be united, alert, earnest and lively.

28


rěn
1 bear; endure; tolerate; put up with

相忍相安
xiāng rěn xiāng ān
be tolerant towards and live in peace with one another

他忍着剧痛, 继续工作。
Tā rěn zhe jùtòng, jìxù gōngzuò.
He continued to work despite the intense pain.

你就忍着点吧。
Nǐ jiù rěn zhe diǎn ba.
You will just have to put up with it.

忍着眼泪
Rěn zhe yǎnlèi
hold back one's tears
2 be hardhearted enough to; have the heart to ▶ 残忍 cánrěn

29

blame

不能怪他们。
Bù néng guài tāmen.
They're not to blame. or It's not their fault.

怪我没讲清楚。
Guài wǒ méi jiǎng qīngchu.
I'm to blame for not having made it clearer.

30


dài
1 bag; sack; pocket; pouch ▶ 旅行袋 lǚxíngdài, 工具袋 gōngjùdài, 口袋 kǒudài
2
MEASURE WORD

一袋面粉
Yī dài miànfěn
a sack of flour

一袋烟的功夫
yī dài yān de gōngfu
time needed to smoke a pipe

31

辅导

辅导〔輔導〕
fǔdǎo
give guidance in study or training; coach

学习这篇文章, 你给我们辅导辅导好不好?
Xuéxí zhè piān wénzhāng, nǐ gěi wǒmen fǔdǎo fǔdǎo hǎo bù hǎo?
Could you give us some guidance in studying this article?

辅导孩子们练武术
fǔdǎo háizi men liàn wǔshù
coach the children in wushu exercises

个别辅导
gèbié fǔdǎo
individual coaching (or tutorial)

辅导报告
fǔdǎo bàogào
guidance lecture (supplementary lecture on background, study method, etc.)

辅导材料
fǔdǎo cáiliào
guidance material