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A shuttle operation relies on the constant movement of apparatus at the _____ and ____, as well as on the route between the two locations.

Fill and dump sites


A pumper located at the water source is generally referred to as the____ and has the responsibility of filling water tenders.

Fill site pumper


Another pumper is located near the fire scene and is used to draft water from portable tanks that are filled by water tenders making shuttle runs to and front the fill site. This location commonly called the ______, and the_______ is assigned to this operation.

Dump site

Dump site pumper


In accordance with NFPA 1901 , water tenders must be designed to be filled at a rate of at least _______ so that the pumpers assigned to the fill site must be rated at that capacity or greater.

1000 gpm


Standard for automotive fire apparatus

NFPA 1901


Any attempt to "_____" by driving faster than recommended during road travel is unsafe and may lead to an incident involving mobile water supply apparatus in property damage, injury, death to firefighters and civilians.

Make up time


Some apparatus may be designed with inlets that fill the tank from the top or bottom. Hydraulically, either design has little effect on usability. However, top fill inlets should be placed so that the hose may be connected easily from the ground. Fixed piping should carry the water from the inlet to the tank. It is preferable to have an "___" in the fill piping to avoid pressurizing the vehicles onboard water tank.

Air gap


_____ requires that water be capable of being dumped from the left, right, and rear of the apparatus.

NFPA 1901


With a _____, gravity is used to empty water from the tank. These dumps often use 8-inch or larger round or square piping with a valve that extends to the exterior of the vehicle.

Gravity dump


Installation of a _______ on a water tender generally increases the safety of a dump operation because it reduces the chance of a firefighter being caught between the apparatus and a portable tank while attempting to dump the tenders water tank.

Remote valve


With the exception of vacuum tenders, the onboard tank must be properly _____ to avoid a sudden pressure failure of the tank during quick filling operations.



When incidents occur on streets with two way access (referred to as through streets), the area near the fire may be encumbered by apparatus and hose lines. The best location of the dump site may be at a clear _____ near the scene where water tenders can have a through access to complete their water shuttle without having to turn around.



When possible, a water supply source capable of supplying at least _____ should be chosen in order to match the NFPA recommended rate at which tenders should be filled.

1000 gpm


A ____ is the optimum arrangement for a water shuttle circuit

Circular route


When a water supply group is established, the person in charge is known as the ________.

Water supply group supervisor


Only this supervisor will report directly up the chain of command to the _______ or ______.

Operations section chief or incident commander


If an incident escalates beyond the span of control for a group supervisor, the IC may establish a _______ under the supervision of a branch director.

Water supply branch


The person assigned the role of group supervisor for the water supply operation ,use have considerable experience in pumper, water supply, and shuttle operations, as well as familiarity with local conditions and a working knowledge of the ______.

Incident management system


Positioning at the fill site must allow for drafting or hydrant connection and the best possible approach and departure route for a water tender traffic. Ideally, position the fill site pumper so as to allow a view of both the ______ and the ____ to be filled.

Water source

Water tender


Commonly, water tenders have at least ______direct tank fill connections or one LDH direct tank fill connection on the rear of the apparatus.

Two 2 1/2 inch


Driver/operators entering the fill site should proceed cautiously into position until the drivers door is _______ to the traffic cone or other marking device this that's been set as an indicator for the driver to stop.



The firefighters operating the fill line, sometimes referred to as the "_____" personnel in reference to their duties of establishing and removing connections between the water source and tank, should remain clear of the approach as each tender approaches and establishes a position.

Make and break personnel


Another dump site method of delivery involves positioning a large water tender immediately adjacent to the attack pumper, serving the same role as a portable tank. Jurisdictions that operate tractor trailer tenders use them as _____.

Nurse tender


The__________ is generally considered the to be the simpler and quickest method to ensure a constant water supply for a fire attack operations.

Portable tank method


When pumping into portable tanks, hose lines discharging into the tank must be secured. Firefighter should not attempt to manually hold the _____ of a hoseline

Open Butt


The tank ______ must have opening of sufficient size to allow free movement of water at the bottom of the tank and movement of air at the top during rapid filling or unloading



A simple dump site may feature the use of one _____ that is supplied directly by water shuttle tenders.

One Portable tank


Any tank, regardless of type, should be set up on a surface that is as level as possible and have a capacity at least ___ larger than the water tank on the apparatus that will supply it.

500 gallons


In a ______, mobile water supply apparatus deliver their load of water to the incident scene, dump it into to portable tanks, travel to a fill site, reload, and then return to the incident scene to dump another load of water.

Water shuttle operation


Generally, ______ are the primary methods of providing water supply to points remote from a water source.

Relay pumping or tanker shuttle operations


The most favorable aspect of a water shuttle operation is the ease with which it is _______ when the incident is concluded.



The two primary types of apparatus associated with water shuttle operations are

Water tenders and pumpers


With the exception of operations that feature a vacuum tanker or the use of a hydrant, most water shuttles require at least ______ pumpers for water supply

Two pumpers for water supply


Are used to provide water supply to incident scenes where relay pumping is not a viable option

Water shuttle operations


Vehicle weight restrictions generally limit single rear axle apparatus to a maximum capacity of

2000 gallons


For apparatus with a capacity greater than 2000 gallons, _____ are required

Tandem rear axles, tri axles, or semi trailers are required


Water tenders that are used only for shuttle operations do not require a fire pump if they are equipped with a suitable

Dumping system


Tenders featuring pumps of 750 gpm or greater rating are often called

Pumper tenders


In order to be considered a tender under nims typing, an onboard or portable ___ is required

Fire pump


There is no need for a separate pumper at the fill site if you are using a

Vacuum tender


The vacuum tender is able to self fill from a static water source at a rate of up to ______ with a lift of up to _____.

2000 gpms and 22 feet of lift


These apparatus are also capable of discharging it’s water tank at a rate up to

1750 gpm


The success of a water shuttle operation depends on its



Faster water shuttle operations are achieved by efficient filling and dumping operations, not



Apparatus that use medium diameter supply hose for filling should have at least ____ external fill connections piped directly to the tank



If LDH is used, ____ fill connection is generally sufficient



Jet assisted dumps use a _____ inserted into the piping of the large tank discharge

Small diameter in line discharge


The success of a water shuttle operation relies on several decisions that must be made at the outset of the incident

Location of dump site
Location of fill site
Route of travel for water tenders between fill sites and dump sites
Number of vehicles necessary-to maintain a constant supply of water at the scene


By ______ the most advantageous sites and routes, the incident commander or water supply group supervisor will be able to establish a reliable water supply more quickly during an incident



The location of the dump site must be in relatively _____ to the incident scene, but not so close where it would hamper operations or be in danger of exposure to fire or collapse

Close proximity


When operating at incidents located on a narrow lane, driveway, or dead end street, it may be advantageous to locate the dump site at the _______ where a dump site pumper can then relay water to the attack pumper located at the fire scene

Nearest intersection


The best location for a dump site may be at a clear ______ near the scene where water tenders can have through access to complete their water shuttle without having to turn around



The most suitable site to meet the travel safety and flow requirements of a particular incident may not always be the

Geographically closest site


Selecting a fill or dump site that requires______ of water tenders is preferable to ensure safety as well as the efficiency of a water shuttle operation

Little to no backing


The best sites are those where a driver operator may drive _______ when the fill or dump is complete

Straight into the site or straight out


Driving the ____ may be one of the most hazardous tasks for a driver operator during water shuttle operations

Travel route


The goal of the _____ is to load tenders as safely and efficiently as possible

Fill site


When positioning to draft at a static water supply, seek a position that requires a minimum of _____ in order to maximize the flow available to supply the tender



Position the fill site pumper to a point of best advantage for the

Water source


Commonly water tenders have at least ______ direct tank fill connections or one LDH direct tank fill connection on the rear of the apparatus

Two 2 1/2 inch


It is more efficient to use the pumper to draft from the site and pump directly into the

Water tender


All driver operators of responding tenders should fill their tanks before returning to quarters. This measure is a recommended practice in most jurisdictions when returning apparatus to “_____” status after an incident.



The _____ provides a continuous supply of water to the apparatus attacking the fire.

Dump site


The following are primary methods for operating a dump site

Direct pumping operations
Nurse tender operations
Portable water tank operations


Using the ______, water tenders pump the water from their tanks directly into the pump intake of an attack pumper

Direct pumping method


Is generally performed only when a minimal volume of water is required

Direct pumping


Another dump site method of delivery involves positioning a large water tender immediately adjacent to the attack pumper, serving the same role as a portable tank

Nurse tender operations


Using one or more ______ located near the incident scene to eliminate the need for backing or turning around is an efficient way to manage dump site water supply

Portable tanks


NFPA 1901 requires all tenders to have the capability to dump at a minimum average flow rate of 1000 gpm for the first ______ of its water tank

90 percent


This operation is generally adequate for firefighting operations that require relatively low flow rates less than 300 gpm

Single portable tank operations


The most common style of ______ folds and is mounted and removed from the apparatus similar to a ground ladder

Portable tank


Another portable tank variation consists of a large bladder with a floating collar around the opening. This is known as a

Self supporting or frameless water tank


The dump site pumper should utilize a _____ to allow for continuous drafting to a point of about 2 inches.

Low level strainer


Incidents that require a flow rate in excess of 300 gpm are best served by a _______

Multiple tank operation


Most multi tank operations use from ______ portable tanks

Two to five portable tanks


The goal of a multi tank operation is to keep the tank, from which the attack pumper is drafting,

Full at all times


There are several ways to transfer water between portable tanks.

A more efficient method involves the use of ____ to move water from one tank to another

Jet siphons


All _____ should be tested for flow capacity prior to use during fireground operations



Most water tenders only dump _____ of their load before leaving the dump site

90 percent


Shuttle operations are divided into two time elements:

Travel time and handling time


The ISO equation uses _____ of a tenders total tank capacity to account for water lost or undischarged and remaining in the tank after the dump valve is closed

90 percent


One of the most accurate ways to determine the amount of water left in the tank after dumping is to weigh the apparatus on a truck scale when _____ and again after being dumped