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Flashcards in Structural Firefighting 🔥💦🚒 Deck (75)
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A staging area can be located anywhere mobile equipment can be temporarily parked while awaiting assignment. It is best to stage units ________ from the actual incident to avoid the temptation of freelance into action and to ensure that staged units are in a safe area.

Two or more blocks


The ______ manages all tactical operations such as search and rescue, extinguishment, and provision of medical care to victims.

Operations section


Frame buildings built prior to 1940 may be ________; whereas frame buildings built later will probably be __________.

Balloon frame

Platform frame


Type 1 construction
Type 2 construction
Type 3 construction
Type 4 construction
Type 5 construction

Fire resistive
Heavy timber


If the first engine company will be used to lay attack lines position the apparatus on the same side as the fire and as close to the curb line as possible, with the discharge gates with the desired

Desired entry point


If the apparatus is set up to use rear discharges for preconnected attack lines, then the pumper should be positioned close to the curb but __________.

Forward of the desired entry point


If computer models are not available reasonably accurate estimations can be determined by using empirical methods, such as the ISO formula, which states that __________ or the _______.

1.7 x distance + 0.65 = travel time or RAND (research and development corporation average speed of 35 miles per hour)


Is the first medical priority in managing a medical disaster. The first arriving ems personnel should not leave the scene until they are relived of __________ responsibility.



The system that is most often encountered is the ________, which is very effective and the most reliable fire suppression system.

Wet pipe sprinkler system


The _______ is probably the most commonly used method of determining flow rate.

Trial and error method


The offensive/defensive decision is based on staffing available to conduct an interior attack, water supply, ventilation, and most importantly a __________.

Risk versus benefit analysis


However, of the conditions listed, the _______ has historically posed the greatest problem and most often cited as a conflagration factor.

Wood shingle roofing


Fire debris will tend to clog floor drains; it is important to keep these drains. If floors do not have drains, a common way to provide one is by removing the toilet, creating a drain through the _______ opening in the floor.



An occupancy (1) used for the gathering of 50 or more people for deliberation, worship, entertainment, eating, drinking, amusement, awaiting transportation, or similar uses; or (2) used as a special amusement building, regardless of occupant load.

Assembly occupancy


As mentioned previously, extinguishment, the second tactical priority, often is the most effective means of accomplishing the top ________ of life safety.

Tactical priority


An occupancy used to house one or more persons under varied degrees of restraint or security where such occupants are mostly incapable of self preservation because of security measures not under occupant control.

Detention and correctional occupancy


The laws of hydraulics tell us that there is ________ of back pressure for every 1 ft of elevation. As an example in the 60 story high rise building each floor is 10 ft high Yielding a back pressure of 256 psi at the base of the building

0.434 psi


In a high rise situation, most of the reserve force is moved through the lobby and then to the _______. This area is normally _______ below the fire.

Interior staging area

Two or more floors below the fire


This _______ would include a drawing of the property specific floor layouts and narrative describing important features

Formal preincedent plan


The ________ building As the name indicates Is superior to all other building types in regard to structural stability under fire conditions

Fire resistive type 1


______ deal with fire extending from one area of a building to another within a structure

Internal exposures


_________ is caused by the products combustion

Primary damage


Results from fire ground activities or the operation of a fire protection system

Secondary damage


Newer churches come in a variety of styles. Both old and new churches have a common characteristic: a large open area to accommodate the congregation at the altar. This one factor means that the total catastrophic structural _________ is highly probable once a fire reaches the structure supporting the roof.

Collapse of the roof


Most fire fighter fatalities occur in __________ fires because most fires because most fires occur in these occupancies. In 2011 ____ of all structure fires occurred in residential occupancies.

Home (dwellings and apartments)

80 percent


Using the 12 ft. (3.7m) per story estimate, a five-story building would be 60 ft. (18.3 m) in height, requiring a collapse zone of approximately ______.

90 ft (1.5 x 60ft.)


Over ____ of all injuries occur on the fire ground, and over ____ of on-duty injuries are strains and sprains.




The _______ chief is the information manager. _______ should be the most frequently implemented section portion.

Planning section


A ______ is in charge of units working in a geographic area.



Actually begins before the incident with the development of sops, and preincedent planning

Size up


Frame buildings will normally have considerable fire involvement before collapse, with exception of ______ and _____.

Truss roof

Engineered floor construction


At a minimum line firefighters should be able to function as part of either an engine or truck company crew and be trained in ______ and _______.

Basic emergency medical and hazardous materials mitigation skills


NFPA 1710 establishes a travel time goal of ______ for the first arriving engine company and ______ for the entire first alarm assignment

4 min 240 seconds

8 min 480 seconds


Ordinary solid materials must be preheated to the point at which a vapor fuel is released, through the process called ______.



However when properly maintained, they are the second best option. If the ______ is structurally sound, it is preferred over methods other than the interior stairway.

Fire escape


The fire fighter who is assigned to the main control valve may also be in a position to monitor the fire pump, in many cases the fire pumps are located near the main control valve. This is an important position that should not be relegated to a part time task, requiring the firefighter to walk a considerable between the riser and pumps. A good rule of thumb _________

Is to separate the tasks of the pumps cannot be seen or heard by someone standing at the main control valve


Standpipe outlets with a residual pressure exceeding _____ or a static pressure exceeding ______ are required to be equipped with pressure reducing valves

100 psi

175 psi


The purpose of _____ is to ensure that the fire is completely extinguished and that the building is safe for personnel such as investigators or the property owner to enter



The first step in determining evacuation needs is an evacuation of the _______,_______, and _______.

Time of day, building size, and occupancy type.


Standpipe operations and equipment are discussed in the fire protection systems, including pressure or flow reducing valves. Generally the pressure at the standpipe discharge will be lower than the pump discharge pressure used to supply hose streams connected directly to the pumper. Departments compensate for the lower pressure by using _______ or ______.

Smooth bore or low pressure nozzles


The term ______ is used by wildland fire fighters to identify a location housing reserve equipment and personnel. This term is not normally used for structural firefighting but has utility in managing high rise fires. The _____ for high rise fires is a location where support equipment and personnel are kept on the exterior of the building.



A ______ is in charge of units working in a geographic area, whereas a _____ is in charge of units assigned to complete a function.




SOP's and a good _____ are necessary prerequisites in the development of an incident action plan.



NFPA 1710 establishes that a travel time goal of _____ for the first-arriving eng company and ____ for the entire first alarm.

240 seconds (4min)

480 seconds (8 min)


The _______ is capable of controlling as many as 625 companies or crews with a five-to-one span of control. At the maximum recommended span of control (seven to one) a total of 2401 companies or crews can be effectively controlled.

Operations section


The primary search is a quick but thorough search of the area. The secondary search ensures that no one was missed the first time through. If conditions and resources permit, a secondary search should be conducted as soon as the primary search is complete. To ensure complete coverage during the secondary search, good practice dictates using a ________.

Different crew


For example, use chalk or another medium to mark an _____on the door leading to an enclosed area to indicate the area has been searched. a ______ denotes that the search is underway in that compartment. An _____ on a door leading to a floor or opposite the elevator indicates that the entire floor has been searched.


Half X



When the system or part of the system is out of service, the system should be tagged as specified in _________.

NFPA 25 standard for inspection, testing, maintenance, of water based testing systems.


________ situations are a result of specific incidents, such as transportation accidents, hazardous materials release, or natural disasters.

Mass casualty


_______ is widely used to reduce fire growth and prevent flashover by directing short blasts of water toward the ceiling



A good rule of thumb method of estimating the collapse zone is to use a distance equal to _______ times the height of the building.

1 1/2 times the height of the building


Wildland urban interface fires spreading from wildland into an unburned area, and destroying large numbers of buildings, are properly defined as _______.



Most fires, most fatal fires, and most property loss occur in _______.

Residential fires


Although the ceiling height of individual floors will vary in high rise buildings, a fair estimate is allowing _____ for the first floor and ______ for each additional floor.

20 ft
10 ft


To avoid the confusion of having a different name for the exterior staging area, the interior staging area could be identified as interior staging or as the _________.

Resource area


Other departments permit an ________ configuration in which the first engine company goes directly to the front of the building and the second engine company provides the water supply.

Attack pumper


The key to successful search operations is to be _______.



The _______ is based on the premise that the best rate of application is one that results in control of the fire within 30 seconds of effective application (80% efficiency)

Royer Nelson formula


The_________ is unlikely to be separately staffed at the scene of a structure fire._________ as the name indicates, manages financial matters and/or provides administrative services;

Finance/administration section


The most effective form of communication is _____________.

Face to face


A fourth category of the pre incident planning by occupancy could be described as either a ___________ or the ________

Training issue or the topic of an SOP


Size up chronology

2Pre incident plan
3 Shift time day
4 alarm information
5 En route
6 visual observations at the scene
7 Information gained during continuing operations
8 Overhaul


The primary objective of structural firefighting is _______; therefore life safety is the first consideration in developing an incident action plan.

Saving lives


The incident action plan governs _________.

Company level operations


When total collapse is imminent, collapse zones represent _________ that no one is permitted to enter regardless of the level of protective clothing.

No entry zones


As can be seen in figure 5-24, ________ is the cause of injury in more than 75% of all fire ground fatalities.

Caught or trapped


Some large area, sprinkler protected buildings are equipped with automatic or manual roof vents and ________ that are designed to limit fire spread.

Draft curtains


In this system a dry stand pipe admits water into the system piping upon activation of a remote control device located at a hose connection

Semi automatic dry


John Coleman notes that a hose streams extinguishing capabilities will generally be determined in about 30 seconds.
He further recommends a trial and error method approach in stating "if you are at the top of a stairway and have a line directing water at a well involved second floor or attic and you don't darken down the fire within ________ or so get more water."

30 seconds


One major disadvantage in using the aerial device for hose lines is that it is no longer available for __________.

Removing occupants or firefighters from the building


Is the solid steam, straight stream, or the fog stream best for defensive operations, they all have their place, and it is important for the fire officer to know the advantages and disadvantages of all available tools. The ________ has the greatest reach and penetrating ability and is best suited to the situations when the attack is on the main body of the fire in a large structure

Solid stream


Flows from sprinkler heads can vary depending on the size of the orifice opening, the type of sprinkler head, and the water pressure in the system. As figure 10-1 shows water flows of up to______ per head are possible.



The primary rescue tactic in a high rise building is a well placed

Offensive attack


Following interior stairs and fire escapes, the next rescue preference is for the _________ or _______.

Aerial ladders or elevated platforms


As mentioned previously distinguishment the second tactical priority is the most effective means of accomplishing the top tactical priority of

Life safety