Flashcards in Pumping Apparatus Handbook 🚒 Deck (81):
NFPA 1901 standard for automotive fire apparatus contains the requirements of pumper design. The standard specifies a minimum pump capacity of at least 300 gallons. Pump capacities larger than 750 gpm increase in increments of _____ with most municipal fire departments operating pumpers of 2000 gpm or less
An inspection method which the driver or inspector starts at one point of the apparatus and continues in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction inspecting the entire apparatus
Circle or walk around method
Apparatus that have been built by members of the fire department or local mechanics and custom built, overloaded vehicles are more likely to have design problems.
When laying supply hose into the fire scene, lay the hose to the _________ if at all possible.
Side of the street
The ______ of the overall water supply system receives the water from the pumping station and delivers it through the area served.
Operating at a pressure of 800 psi, _______ produce a stream with significant forward velocity, but relatively low volume of water of delivery. These nozzles are best suited for wildland fires and are not recommended for structural fire fighting due to their low flow of only 8 to 15 gpm.
High pressure fog nozzles
A simple guideline for the customary system of measurement is _______. This may be used to achieve the approximate solid stream nozzle reaction on the fire ground.
NR = Q/3
A simple guideline for the customary system of measurement is _______. This may be used to achieve the approximate fog stream nozzle reaction on the fire ground.
NR = Q/2
Generally a loss of 25 psi or greater is assumed when flowing the rated capacity. For this text, it is assumed that there is a 0 psi loss for flows less than 350 gpm and a ____ loss for each appliance (other than master stream devices) in a hose assembly when flowing 350 gpm or greater.
The _______ may be used for operations in which the friction loss can be determined for 3-,4-, or 5 in hose. Driver/operators must be aware the margin of difference when using the ______. Although sufficient for many fire ground calculations, the friction loss results will be 20 percent greater than when using the FL=CQ2L. However in hose lays using 3inch the difference may be as great as 50 psi.
The condensed Q formula
Fire pump manufactures have specific recommendations for when the transfer valve on their pumps should be operated in the volume or pressure positions. The process of switching between pressure and volume is sometimes referred to as ____.
Pumps powered by gasoline or Diesel engines independent of the vehicle drive engine are examples of auxiliary pumps. In some cases, these pumps may be part of a skid mount assembly that includes a small water tank, booster reel, and small diameter attack lines. With a pumping capacity of generally _______ or less, some jurisdictions mount these assemblies on pick up trucks.
Making a fire pump operational, commonly referred to as "_______" begins after the apparatus is properly positioned and the parking brake has been set.
"Putting the pump into gear"
Formula for determining maximum lift (customary)
L= 1.13 Hg
Formula for square/rectangle pools
C = 7.5xLxWxD
Formula for round pool capacity
When bulk storage of foam concentrate is required, some fire departments or industrial facilities may specify 275 gallon containers, called _____.
Is a type of in-line eductor that may be used to supply foam concentrate to a self-educting master streams. It allows the foam concentrate supply to be located as far as 3000 ft away from the self educting master stream nozzle.
JRC jet ratio controller
A ______ is performed to ensure that the pump and associated piping are capable of withstanding high pressure pumping demands. The pump body as well as the entire intake and discharge piping systems, with the exception of the tank fill and tank to pump lines on the tank side of the valves, are subjected to a minimum _______ pressure 500 psi for a minimum of 10 minutes.
Check the steering wheel for excess play that does not result in the actual movement of the vehicles front wheels. In general, _____ should be no more than approximately 10 degrees in either direction. On a 20-inch diameter steering the play may be about 2 inches in either direction.
Steering wheel play
When preparing to back the apparatus, the spotter should be positioned in the vision of the driver/operator, preferably in the left (drivers side) mirror, approximately _______ behind and slightly to the left of the apparatus.
8 to 10 feet
Is the distance that the pedal must be pushed before throwing out bearing actually contacts the clutch release fingers.
At speeds above ____ mph an emergency vehicle may outrun the effective range of its audible warning device. Sirens mounted on emergency vehicles operating at slower speeds project much out farther. In some instances increasing the speed of an apparatus by 20 mph can decrease the audible distance by____.
NFPA 1901 requires that all intakes or discharges that are 3 inches or greater be equipped with ______. this feature prevents the valve movement from open to closed in less than 3 seconds. This will minimize the risk of damage caused by water hammer when large volume of water are being moved.
Slow acting valve controls
A ________ ensures the quality of a foam solution after it has been created by a foam Proportioning system. This test is accurate for protein and fluoroprotein based foam solutions.
Foam solution refractory test
When the pump has been made operational priming the pump will begin the drafting operation. For two stage pumps, the transfer valve must be in the ________. A pump in series (pressure) position may trap air that will need to be removed.
Is the difference in elevation between the surface of the static water supply and the center of the pump intake.
Ideally, position the _______ so as to allow a view of both the water source and the water tender to be filled.
Fill site pumper
Newer apparatus may be equipped with electrical load management systems that are intended to prevent an overload of the vehicles electrical generation system. Overload may be a problem due to the large amount of electrical equipment added to modern fire apparatus. In general load management systems incorporate a load sequencer and load monitor into the same device.
The load sequencer turns on various lights at specified intervals so that the start up electrical load for all devices does not occur at the same time. The load monitor "watches" the system for any added electrical loads that threaten to overload the system. If an overload occurs the load monitor will shut down less important equipment in order to prevent this overload. This is referred to as ________.
Most automotive batteries contain lead and sulfuric acid. Leaking acid is highly corrosive and hazardous if it gets on your skin and eyes. Batteries can also give off _______, which is highly explosive and a mere spark can ignite it.
A driver/operators lapse in judgement and awareness and/or that of civilian motor vehicles an cause accidents. The most common place for a collision to occur is at an ________
Two most common types of skidding are acceleration and locked wheel skids. In acceleration skid the drive wheels lose traction on the road surface. To maintain control of the vehicle the driver operator should not apply the brakes, ease off the accelerator, and ______.
Straighten out the front wheels as the vehicles begins to respond.
Drafting operations are required when a pumper must be supplied from a static water source such as a ________.
Dry hydrant, storage tank, lake or stream.
Fire department personnel must consider all railroads "live."
Because it is not always possible to stop the flow of trains on a track during emergency operations and it may require __________ for s fully loaded train to make a complete stop.
One to two miles
Water is considered to be virtually incompressible and its weight varies at different temperatures. Water density, or its weight per unit volume, is measured in pounds per cubic foot. For fire protection services, ordinary fresh water is considered to weigh ______or _____.
62.4lb or 8.3lb/gal
At 212F water converted to steam occupies approximately _______ times its original volume. Helping to dissipate heat in a well vented room. The expansion ratio is even greater at higher temperatures.
When required to discharge a specified pressure, fire apparatus pumps take advantage of the water pressure coming into the pumps water supply and add the required pressure to achieve ______.
Net pump discharge pressure.
NPDP=PDP- intake reading
______ operate using a piston that moves back and fourth in a cylinder. The pressure developed by this action causes intake and discharge valves to operate and causes the movement of air, water, and foam.
Based on NFPA 1901 a sufficient number of 2 1/2 discharge openings must be provided to flow the capacity of the pump. As a minimum, all fire fire apparatus with a rated pump of 750 gpm or greater must be equipped with at least ______ in discharges. Pump rated less than 750 gpm are required to only have ____ discharge. Discharges greater than _____ may not be located on the pump operator panel.
Two 2 1/2 in discharges
One 2 1/2 in discharge
2 1/2 in discharge
Driver operators should maintain a residual pressure of at least ____ on their master intake gauge at all times during pumping operations.
If a fire department pumper were capable of creating a total vacuum, water could be raised by atmospheric pressure to a height in accordance with that pressure. The theoretical lift would decrease as altitude above sea level increases. For every 1000 feet of altitude, the atmospheric pressure decreases by approximately ____.
A method for class B foam application, the ________ involves directing a foam fire stream On the ground near the front edge of a burning liquid spill. The foam will roll across the surface of the fuel.
Roll on method
Proper aerial apparatus placement can make the ventilation process quicker and safer. When providing access for ventilating a flat roof, the driver operator should position the aerial apparatus on the unburned side of the structure as close as possible to the area being ventilated.
Extend the fly sections so that a minimum of 6 feet protrudes over the edge of the roof
Using the aerial as an exterior standpipe to upper floors is a tactic that can eliminate hose lays ups interior stairwells. Interior handlines can be provided by removing the nozzle and attaching hoses to a gated outlet. These operations may be necessary when there is interior fire on an upper floor. Using the aerial as an exterior standpipe is also an effective tactic for the following
Fires in garages
Fires on building roofs
Fires on bridges and overpasses
Fires in buildings under construction where a standpipe is not available
Apparatus with air brakes are to be equipped with air pressure protection valve that prevents air horns or non essential devices from being operated when the pressure in the air reservoir drops below
__________ usually describe vehicles that are in the emergency category; in most cases, this classification covers all fire department vehicles when they are responding to an emergency using their warning lights.
There are 19,824 locations in the us where there is less than _____ following rail road tracks.
In certain instances the inside/outside method of apparatus placement may be used to position aerial and pumping apparatus at a fire scene. If a building is less than five stories tall, the attack pumper is positioned
On the side of the street closest to the building and the aerial apparatus is placed outboard of the pumper
In tandem pumping operations apparatus may be located up to
__________ ft apart.
At _____ pounds per gallon water is a relatively heavy agent. Accumulations of water within a structure can lead to an increased potential for collapse.
Is the portion of the total available pressure not used to overcome friction loss or gravity while forcing water through pipes, fittings, hoses or adapters.
Above sea level, atmospheric pressure decreases approximately _____ for every 1000 ft.
These nozzles are best suited for wild land fires and are not recommended for structural fire fighting due to their low water flow of only _________.
8 to 15 gpm (30L/min to 60L/min)
This formula may be used for 3 inch hose with 2 1/2 or 3 inch couplings. Although not as accurate As the FL=CQ2L formula. It is a quick easy to use method with decent reliability during many fireground operations.
Condensed Q formula FL=Q2
The three main factors influence a centrifugal fire pumps discharge pressure
Amount of water being discharged
Speed at which impeller is turning
Pressure of water when it enters the pump from a pressurized source
Many manual standpipe systems are designed to be pumped at a pressure of ________ at the fdc
If an adequate draft cannot be established due to clogging at the strainer, __________ with tank water may help to dislodge debris.
Commonly, water tenders have at least ________ 2 1/2 inch direct tank fill connections or one LDH direct tank fill connection on the rear of the apparatus.
Two 2 1/2 inch
Is applied to suppress fires involving flammable and combustible liquids. It is also used to suppress vapors from unignited spills involving these liquids.
Class B foam
All elevating platforms must have a minimum load capacity of 750 pounds when the aerial device is fully extended, at any elevation within its normal range of motion and with no water in the piping system.
This load requirement drops to _______ when the water delivery is charged.
The long standing fire service standard has been to provide 10 feet of clearance between the aerial device and over head high voltage lines energized from 600 to 50,000 volts, and _____ feet of clearance for high voltage transmission lines over 50,000 volts.
Friction loss in older hose may be much greater than that of brand new hose. Modern fire hose has a smoother inner lining and causes less friction loss than older hose. The friction loss in older hose may be as much as ______ greater than that of new hose.
50 percent greater
Generally, ______ is the maximum flow for a handline
Smooth bore streams are generally operated at ______ nozzle pressure, while fog appliances are generally operated at ________ psi.
80 psi smooth bore
100 psi fog applications
Generally fixed master steam appliances, a nozzle pressure of ______ is required.
With proper calibration, a flow meter in good working order should be accurate to a tolerance of plus or minus _________.
It is generally recommended that the intake relief valves be set to open when the intake pressure rises more than _______ above the necessary operating pressure
This device is used to increase or decrease the speed of the engine that powers the fire pump. An increase or decrease in engine speed will allow the driver operator to control the amount of pressure that the fire pump supplies to the discharge. There are several types of throttles available, including a throttle knob called_________ that can be turned clockwise or counter clockwise to achieve the required pressure.
It is advisable for driver operators to maintain an intake pressure of ____________ as a relay pumper
20 to 30 psi
The pressure at the discharge side of the eductor must not exceed ________ of the eductor inlet pressure.
The off-center mountain of the impeller within the casing creating water passage of gradually increasing size as it nears the discharge outlet. this section of a pump is called the
To use the percentage method
First calculate the drop in pressure as a percentage
Is the first tactical priority at any incident
Life safety rescue situations
The rougher the inner surface of the pipe commonly referred to as the ____, the greater the friction loss will be
Coefficient of friction
Solid stream nozzles on handlines should be generally operated at a maximum _____ nozzle pressure
Friction loss formula
A friction loss of ____ for all master stream appliances regardless of flow will be used.
Each discharge equipped with a flow meter must have a digital readout display mounted within _____ of the control valve for that discharge
Although sufficient for many fireground calculations, the friction loss will be _____ than when using the fl=CQ2L formula
20 percent greater condensed q formula
In some instances, 20 percent will not amount to a major effect in psi. However, in a hose lay of 1000 feet of 3 inch hose, the difference may be as great as
50 psi condensed q formula