Flashcards in St Chpt 5 Deck (105):
___________ is the highest tactical priority at the incident scene.
Probably the most important safety factor at the scene of a structure fire is A well organize operation based on a solid _______ using effective tactics.
Risk versus benefit analysis
The annual on duty firefighter fatalities report for the previous calendar year is published each year in the _______ Edition of the NFPA journal.
The annual on duty firefighter injury report is published in the________ issue of the nfpa journal.
The NFPA defines the term “__________” as an injury occurring while at the scene of alarms, whether fire or non fire; When responding to or returning from alarms; when performing other duties, including training maintenance, public education, inspection, investigation, ETC.; And while performing non fire duties or official assignment station duty.
On duty injury
If the on duty injury prove fatal or any illness that was incurred as a result of actions while on duty proves fatal, then the death is counted as an __________.
On duty fatality
most _________ occur in home dwellings and apartments fires because most fires occur in these occupancies.
The probability of fatality is much greater in a__________ than in a residence.
____ are the two leading causes of on duty fire fatalities at structure fires.
Cardiac events and asphyxiation
____________are responsible for slightly more than-one third of firefighter fatalities at structure fires.
sudden cardiac death
_________ Accounts for almost equal number of fire fighter on duty deaths when working at structure fires.
Over ______ of all injuries occur on the fire ground, and over _____ of on duty injuries are strains and sprains.
45% and 55 %
Probably the most important element of the incident safety program is applying_________ To fire ground operations.
The concept of probability is important to the _________.
Risk management process
The primary fuel load for most structure fires is made up of the _________.
The _______ consists of fuels provided by the contents and combustible building materials.
Fire or fuel load
A firefighter walking on a roof creates a _______ that is concentrated on a fairly small area the size of his or her boot.
Using a roof ladder distributes this_________over a much greater surface area, reducing the chance of penetrating a weakened section of roof.
Fire intensity, burn time, content load, and construction methods and materials all affect _______.
The _______ states that when a heavy volume of fire is burning out of control on two or more floors for 20 minutes or longer, structural collapse should be anticipated.
20 minute rule
This rule is based on type 3 ordinary construction
20 min rule
NFPA 1500 requires dispatch to notify command every ______ until the fire is knocked down, the incident becomes static, or the IC cancels the notification.
It is critical that _______ take into account the time the fire was burning prior to notification and while units were responding, not just the amount of time since they arrived.
When changing from a an offensive to a defensive operation, a managed _______ is best
When deciding on an offensive or defensive strategy or when placing companies for rescue or fire attack, the fire officer must take _________ into account.
Light weight construction methods are structurally sound under normal conditions. In fact, the added strength allows builders to place roof trusses _____ on center, whereas the earlier methods required ____ on center supports.
24 in and 16 in
__________systems frequently fail under fire conditions, with little warning to the firefighter
Unprotected ________ used in noncombustible construction fail quickly when exposed to high heat.
_________ generally results in a large area of damage.
Truss Roof collapse
Wood truss construction typically uses _______ in place of nails.
Many decisions to conduct the attack in the defensive rather than offensive mode are based on _______.
The _________ consists of layers of materials supporting soil used to grow vegetation on a roof, which also provides roof insulation.
________ not only add to the roof load, they create a potential ignition source, make roof ventilation more difficult, and present an electrical shock hazard that is difficult to deenergize .
The changes that have occurred in the density and dimensions of newer lumber have compounded the problem of structural failure in ________.
If the basement is partially above ground, other tactics may be available such as operating host streams through a basement window to control and limit the fire by_______.
Softening the target
_________ Our tactics that could be used to knock down the main body a fire in the basement that is partially out of the ground
Pulsing and indirect attacks
Floor collapse is a major concern when combating a _______.
Suspended ceilings are used to hide open construction methods such as ________, thus creating a large undivided concealed space.
It is important to remember that the five building categories listed do not represent all possible construction methods. As an example non combustible buildings are further subdivided into _________
Protected and non protected
The non combustible building is sometimes mistaken for_______ due to the non burning characteristics of the structure.
The _______ will normally be masonry or metal on the exterior with lightweight metal trusses as a roof structure.
Non combustible building
These buildings often have large open areas with long structural spans. Once the fire enters the truss space, expect imminent roof collapse.
If the sprinkler system is out of service or ineffective, these buildings should be considered________.
Non-code compliant structures
A good rule of thumb when determining collapse zone distances for most buildings is to establish an area _________.
1 1/2 times the height of the fire building
When a defensive stand is a reasonable alternative, _______ of buildings are normally safer than those on the flat side of the wall.
Positions at the corners
When total collapse is imminent, collapse zones represent______ that no one is permitted to enter, regardless of the level of protective clothing.
No entry zones
Two blocks in all directions beyond the building on fire is a good rule of thumb approximation for the _______.
The building structure is only minimally affected during the ________ of the fire
Ignition phase and early growth phase
Structural stability is compromised as the fire continues to burn the through the growth phase to the ________.
Fully develop phase
Occupant survival is improbable in a post _______ compartment, and even fully protected fire fighters will quickly succumb under flashover conditions.
Post flashover compartment
Fires involving the content of the building are categorized as _______ whereas fires involving actual structural members are considered _______.
Building fires and structure fires
Which is the time from ignition until fire is reported to the dispatch center.
Pre burn time
This includes the time for the dispatcher to take the call, select the units for assignment, and then dispatch the companies.
This is the time from the receipt of the alarm by the fire department until the apparatus crosses the front door sill of the fire station or otherwise begins response toward the scene.
Turn out time
NFPA 1710 sets a time objective of _________ turnout time for fire and special operations response.
1 minute 20 seconds
The time interval that begins when the unit is enroute to the emergency incident and ends when a unit arrives at the scene
Average response times can be established by using computer models. If computer models are not available reasonably accurate estimation can be determined by using empirical methods, such as the _____.
ISO formula which states that 1.7x distance + 0.65 = travel time or the RAND average speed of 35 mph
NFPA 1710 establishes a travel time goal of_______ for the first arriving engine company and ________ for the entire first alarm.
4 minutes 240 seconds
8 minutes 480 seconds
Is the time necessary to position the apparatus, advance the first hose line into an attack position, and apply water .
Set up time
Upon assembling the necessary resources at the emergency scene, the fire department should have the capability to safely commence an initial attack within_______
2 min 90 Percent of the time
Ordinary solid materials must be preheated to the point at which vapor fuel is release, through a process called _______
If there is sufficient oxygen available when the contained fuels reach ignition temperature, a _____ occurs.
The _______ position is mobile
The ________ should be at a fixed location
Because accountability procedures become more important as the incident increases in size and complexity, it is very likely that mutual aid resources will be at the scene. Therefore, a ________ to an accountability system is the only logical choice.
The ______ are the preferred means of access and egress, but they are sometimes untenable or inadequate
Would be a second preferred choice of egress/access because using —
Caught or trapped is the cause of injury in more than _____ of all fire ground fatalities
A common practice in the past was for the first due truck Company to _______ By placing a letter somewhere anywhere on the building
Claim the building
In a high-rise operation on an upper floor, The RIC and RIC equipment should be located ________ below the fire floor so RIC members do not extend their air supply while on standby, but are near areas where firefighters are working.
One or more
Whenever possible interior hose lines should attack from the_______.
Same access point
The time between suppression and final ______ is an ideal time to rotate personnel through rehabilitation while the building airs out.
Rehabilitation can be divided into three phases
Pre-incident hydration and preparation
Post incident recovery
While awaiting calls, members should pre-hydrated by drinking ______ of water every 6 hours plus liquids that are infested with meals.
6 to 8 hours
NFPA 1584 stipulates that rehabilitation should be provided after the second, ______,______, or ______.
30 min cylinder
45 min or 60 min cylinder
After 40 minutes of strenuous work without an scba
The only safe collapse zone is one that is equal to the ____ plus an allowance for scattering debris
Height of the building
An IC confronted with a well involved fire should ______ when making a decision to conduct operations in the offensive mode
Start the clock
_____ spaces have played a major role in fire fatalities at structure fires.
Truss roofs and concealed spaces
Knowing common construction methods used in the departments response area is important to
Safe and effective fire operations
The immediate availability of a_______ is more than a means of extinguishment: it is also an important safety factor
Charged hose line
Can cut off the primary means of egress for fire fighters.
Fires that enter and are confined to concealed ceiling areas are particularly prone to
Get behind the fire fighter
The ______, like the truss roof, creates a large, concealed space and is less fire resistive than heavier solid beam construction.
Establishing a ______ is critical when structural stability is the reason for a defensive attack
The ______ for a fire in a multistory building would normally include the fire floor, floors above the fire, and one or two floors below the fire.
If the fire is not contained and an exterior attack becomes necessary, the hot zone is moved far away from the structure to place fire fighters outside the collapse zone and in fresh air. The collapse zone becomes a _______
No entry zone
However, _____ remains a major life safety and extinguishment factor, as a fire may progress at a slower rate due to a number of factors
The principle to keep in mind is that _______ are critical factors
Fire Growth and time
OSHA regulations require a _______ attack configuration for the initial attack when firefighters enter a fire area but with an imminent life threatening situation.
Two in/two out rule
The main point to be made in studying the flashover/survival collapse charts is that _____ is a critical factor
Fire fighters must use extreme caution when opening doors and windows when the fire is ventilation limited. The fire will almost surely gain intensity and possible result in
Flashover or backdraft
Initially, ______ tend to be the most critical problems when encountering a working fire in a small volume compartment such as in the apartment building
Flashover or backdraft
Firefighters in need of assistance transmit a
Departments should establish an emergency evacuation signal. One method is to use apparatus air horns to signal retreat, such as
10 three second blasts
The drop everything and run tactic is more often used during
For offensive operations, an _____ is generally a better alternative
Except in situations of imminent life threatening circumstances, splitting a crew to provide a _______ during initial operations is required by NFPA 1500 and osha regulations when only one company or unit is on scene and entry is made into a burning structure
Two out team
Routine requests for a PAR at a designated time or whenever there is a change in tactics reinforces the concept of ______ and ensures that officers are aware of the location of the personnel assigned to them
It is important to point out that the ______ is not a substitute for safe and effective operations
Formulating an incident action plan based on a risk vs benefits analysis, combined with good tactics and company level attention to safety will reduce the need for _____
In the initial stages of an operation, with only one crew operating at the scene, the pump operator and one additional fire fighter are generally assigned as the
A ____ is an indispensable tool when the exact location of the fire fighter needing assistance is unknown
TIC thermal imaging camera
When notified that a fire fighter needs assistance, the ____ must locate, extricate, remove/assist, and provide medical attention for fire fighters trapped inside a building