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Flashcards in St Chpt 5 Deck (105):

___________ is the highest tactical priority at the incident scene.

Saving lives


Probably the most important safety factor at the scene of a structure fire is A well organize operation based on a solid _______ using effective tactics.

Risk versus benefit analysis


The annual on duty firefighter fatalities report for the previous calendar year is published each year in the _______ Edition of the NFPA journal.



The annual on duty firefighter injury report is published in the________ issue of the nfpa journal.



The NFPA defines the term “__________” as an injury occurring while at the scene of alarms, whether fire or non fire; When responding to or returning from alarms; when performing other duties, including training maintenance, public education, inspection, investigation, ETC.; And while performing non fire duties or official assignment station duty.

On duty injury


If the on duty injury prove fatal or any illness that was incurred as a result of actions while on duty proves fatal, then the death is counted as an __________.

On duty fatality


most _________ occur in home dwellings and apartments fires because most fires occur in these occupancies.

Firefighter fatalities


The probability of fatality is much greater in a__________ than in a residence.

Manufacturing occupancy


____ are the two leading causes of on duty fire fatalities at structure fires.

Cardiac events and asphyxiation


____________are responsible for slightly more than-one third of firefighter fatalities at structure fires.

sudden cardiac death


_________ Accounts for almost equal number of fire fighter on duty deaths when working at structure fires.



Over ______ of all injuries occur on the fire ground, and over _____ of on duty injuries are strains and sprains.

45% and 55 %


Probably the most important element of the incident safety program is applying_________ To fire ground operations.

Risk management


The concept of probability is important to the _________.

Risk management process


The primary fuel load for most structure fires is made up of the _________.

Combustible contents


The _______ consists of fuels provided by the contents and combustible building materials.

Fire or fuel load


A firefighter walking on a roof creates a _______ that is concentrated on a fairly small area the size of his or her boot.

Live load


Using a roof ladder distributes this_________over a much greater surface area, reducing the chance of penetrating a weakened section of roof.

Live load


Fire intensity, burn time, content load, and construction methods and materials all affect _______.

Structural stability


The _______ states that when a heavy volume of fire is burning out of control on two or more floors for 20 minutes or longer, structural collapse should be anticipated.

20 minute rule


This rule is based on type 3 ordinary construction

20 min rule


NFPA 1500 requires dispatch to notify command every ______ until the fire is knocked down, the incident becomes static, or the IC cancels the notification.

10 min


It is critical that _______ take into account the time the fire was burning prior to notification and while units were responding, not just the amount of time since they arrived.

Burn time


When changing from a an offensive to a defensive operation, a managed _______ is best

Managed retreat


When deciding on an offensive or defensive strategy or when placing companies for rescue or fire attack, the fire officer must take _________ into account.

Structural stability


Light weight construction methods are structurally sound under normal conditions. In fact, the added strength allows builders to place roof trusses _____ on center, whereas the earlier methods required ____ on center supports.

24 in and 16 in


__________systems frequently fail under fire conditions, with little warning to the firefighter

Lightweight construction


Unprotected ________ used in noncombustible construction fail quickly when exposed to high heat.

Metal trusses


_________ generally results in a large area of damage.

Truss Roof collapse


Wood truss construction typically uses _______ in place of nails.

Gusset plates


Many decisions to conduct the attack in the defensive rather than offensive mode are based on _______.

Structural stability


The _________ consists of layers of materials supporting soil used to grow vegetation on a roof, which also provides roof insulation.

Green roof


________ not only add to the roof load, they create a potential ignition source, make roof ventilation more difficult, and present an electrical shock hazard that is difficult to deenergize .

Solar panels


The changes that have occurred in the density and dimensions of newer lumber have compounded the problem of structural failure in ________.

Wood construction


If the basement is partially above ground, other tactics may be available such as operating host streams through a basement window to control and limit the fire by_______.

Softening the target


_________ Our tactics that could be used to knock down the main body a fire in the basement that is partially out of the ground

Pulsing and indirect attacks


Floor collapse is a major concern when combating a _______.

Basement fire


Suspended ceilings are used to hide open construction methods such as ________, thus creating a large undivided concealed space.



It is important to remember that the five building categories listed do not represent all possible construction methods. As an example non combustible buildings are further subdivided into _________

Protected and non protected


The non combustible building is sometimes mistaken for_______ due to the non burning characteristics of the structure.

Fire resistive


The _______ will normally be masonry or metal on the exterior with lightweight metal trusses as a roof structure.

Non combustible building


These buildings often have large open areas with long structural spans. Once the fire enters the truss space, expect imminent roof collapse.

Non combustible


If the sprinkler system is out of service or ineffective, these buildings should be considered________.

Non-code compliant structures


A good rule of thumb when determining collapse zone distances for most buildings is to establish an area _________.

1 1/2 times the height of the fire building


When a defensive stand is a reasonable alternative, _______ of buildings are normally safer than those on the flat side of the wall.

Positions at the corners


When total collapse is imminent, collapse zones represent______ that no one is permitted to enter, regardless of the level of protective clothing.

No entry zones


Two blocks in all directions beyond the building on fire is a good rule of thumb approximation for the _______.

Fire perimeter


The building structure is only minimally affected during the ________ of the fire

Ignition phase and early growth phase


Structural stability is compromised as the fire continues to burn the through the growth phase to the ________.

Fully develop phase


Occupant survival is improbable in a post _______ compartment, and even fully protected fire fighters will quickly succumb under flashover conditions.

Post flashover compartment


Fires involving the content of the building are categorized as _______ whereas fires involving actual structural members are considered _______.

Building fires and structure fires


Which is the time from ignition until fire is reported to the dispatch center.

Pre burn time


This includes the time for the dispatcher to take the call, select the units for assignment, and then dispatch the companies.

Dispatch time


This is the time from the receipt of the alarm by the fire department until the apparatus crosses the front door sill of the fire station or otherwise begins response toward the scene.

Turn out time


NFPA 1710 sets a time objective of _________ turnout time for fire and special operations response.

1 minute 20 seconds


The time interval that begins when the unit is enroute to the emergency incident and ends when a unit arrives at the scene

Travel time


Average response times can be established by using computer models. If computer models are not available reasonably accurate estimation can be determined by using empirical methods, such as the _____.

ISO formula which states that 1.7x distance + 0.65 = travel time or the RAND average speed of 35 mph


NFPA 1710 establishes a travel time goal of_______ for the first arriving engine company and ________ for the entire first alarm.

4 minutes 240 seconds

8 minutes 480 seconds


Is the time necessary to position the apparatus, advance the first hose line into an attack position, and apply water .

Set up time


Upon assembling the necessary resources at the emergency scene, the fire department should have the capability to safely commence an initial attack within_______

2 min 90 Percent of the time


Ordinary solid materials must be preheated to the point at which vapor fuel is release, through a process called _______



If there is sufficient oxygen available when the contained fuels reach ignition temperature, a _____ occurs.



The _______ position is mobile

Safety officer


The ________ should be at a fixed location

Accountability officer


Because accountability procedures become more important as the incident increases in size and complexity, it is very likely that mutual aid resources will be at the scene. Therefore, a ________ to an accountability system is the only logical choice.

Regional approach


The ______ are the preferred means of access and egress, but they are sometimes untenable or inadequate

Interior stairs


Would be a second preferred choice of egress/access because using —

Fire escapes


The —

Pass device


Caught or trapped is the cause of injury in more than _____ of all fire ground fatalities



A common practice in the past was for the first due truck Company to _______ By placing a letter somewhere anywhere on the building

Claim the building


In a high-rise operation on an upper floor, The RIC and RIC equipment should be located ________ below the fire floor so RIC members do not extend their air supply while on standby, but are near areas where firefighters are working.

One or more


Whenever possible interior hose lines should attack from the_______.

Same access point


The time between suppression and final ______ is an ideal time to rotate personnel through rehabilitation while the building airs out.



Rehabilitation can be divided into three phases

Pre-incident hydration and preparation
Incident rehabilitation
Post incident recovery


While awaiting calls, members should pre-hydrated by drinking ______ of water every 6 hours plus liquids that are infested with meals.

6 to 8 hours


NFPA 1584 stipulates that rehabilitation should be provided after the second, ______,______, or ______.

30 min cylinder
45 min or 60 min cylinder
After 40 minutes of strenuous work without an scba


The only safe collapse zone is one that is equal to the ____ plus an allowance for scattering debris

Height of the building


An IC confronted with a well involved fire should ______ when making a decision to conduct operations in the offensive mode

Start the clock


_____ spaces have played a major role in fire fatalities at structure fires.

Truss roofs and concealed spaces


Knowing common construction methods used in the departments response area is important to

Safe and effective fire operations


The immediate availability of a_______ is more than a means of extinguishment: it is also an important safety factor

Charged hose line


Can cut off the primary means of egress for fire fighters.

Fire extension


Fires that enter and are confined to concealed ceiling areas are particularly prone to

Get behind the fire fighter


The ______, like the truss roof, creates a large, concealed space and is less fire resistive than heavier solid beam construction.

Truss floor


Establishing a ______ is critical when structural stability is the reason for a defensive attack

Collapse zone


The ______ for a fire in a multistory building would normally include the fire floor, floors above the fire, and one or two floors below the fire.

Hot zone


If the fire is not contained and an exterior attack becomes necessary, the hot zone is moved far away from the structure to place fire fighters outside the collapse zone and in fresh air. The collapse zone becomes a _______

No entry zone


However, _____ remains a major life safety and extinguishment factor, as a fire may progress at a slower rate due to a number of factors

Response time


The principle to keep in mind is that _______ are critical factors

Fire Growth and time


OSHA regulations require a _______ attack configuration for the initial attack when firefighters enter a fire area but with an imminent life threatening situation.

Two in/two out rule


The main point to be made in studying the flashover/survival collapse charts is that _____ is a critical factor



Fire fighters must use extreme caution when opening doors and windows when the fire is ventilation limited. The fire will almost surely gain intensity and possible result in

Flashover or backdraft


Initially, ______ tend to be the most critical problems when encountering a working fire in a small volume compartment such as in the apartment building

Flashover or backdraft


Firefighters in need of assistance transmit a



Departments should establish an emergency evacuation signal. One method is to use apparatus air horns to signal retreat, such as

10 three second blasts


The drop everything and run tactic is more often used during

defensive operations


For offensive operations, an _____ is generally a better alternative

Organized retreat


Except in situations of imminent life threatening circumstances, splitting a crew to provide a _______ during initial operations is required by NFPA 1500 and osha regulations when only one company or unit is on scene and entry is made into a burning structure

Two out team


Routine requests for a PAR at a designated time or whenever there is a change in tactics reinforces the concept of ______ and ensures that officers are aware of the location of the personnel assigned to them

Personnel accountability


It is important to point out that the ______ is not a substitute for safe and effective operations



Formulating an incident action plan based on a risk vs benefits analysis, combined with good tactics and company level attention to safety will reduce the need for _____

Emergency Rescues


In the initial stages of an operation, with only one crew operating at the scene, the pump operator and one additional fire fighter are generally assigned as the



A ____ is an indispensable tool when the exact location of the fire fighter needing assistance is unknown

TIC thermal imaging camera


When notified that a fire fighter needs assistance, the ____ must locate, extricate, remove/assist, and provide medical attention for fire fighters trapped inside a building



Some departments categorize RIC operations as a ______ or an _____

Rapid removal or an extended operation