Flashcards in Pump Ops Chpt 14 Deck (108):
Raw foam liquid in its storage container before being combined with water and air
Device that injects the correct amount of foam concentrate into the water stream to make the foam solution
Mixture of foam concentrate and water before the introduction of air
Completed product after air is introduced into the foam solution (also known as finished foam)
Class B fuels are divided into two categories ____ and _____.
Hydrocarbons and polar solvents
Creates a barrier between the fuel and fire
Lowers the temperature of the fuel and adjacent surfaces
Prevents the release of flammable vapors, reducing the possibility of ignition or reignition
Suppressing or smothering
_____ is the act of mixing of water with foam concentrate to form a foam solution
Most fire fighting foams are formulated to mix with _____ to _____ percent water
94 to 99.9
Class A foams are formulated to be proportioned within certain limits established by the manufacturer to achieve specific objectives. These percentages may range from a little as ___ to ___.
0.1 percent to 1.0 percent
The induction method of Proportioning foam uses the pressure of a water stream to induct foam concentrate into the fire stream. This is achieved by passing the stream of water through a Venturi device called an ______.
The ________method of Proportioning foam uses an external pump to force foam concentrate into the fire stream at the proper ratio in comparison to the flow.
A simple but potentially inaccurate method of mixing foam concentrate and water, ____ occurs when an appropriate amount of foam concentrate is poured directly into a tank of water.
Is a common method of Proportioning in which pre measured portions of water and foam concentrate are mixed in a container. Typically, this method is used with portable and wheeled extinguishers, skid mounted twin agent units, and apparatus mounted tank systems.
Five gallon plastic ___ are commonly used containers in many municipal fire departments.
Foam concentrate is also available in 55 gallon plastic or plastic lined _________.
When bulk storage of foam concentrates is required, some fire departments or industrial facilities may specify 275 gallon containers, called ____.
Foam concentrate tanks on municipal fire apparatus generally range from ___ to ___ gallons while foam pumper or tenders may carry ____ or more of concentrate.
20 to 200 gallons
Available since the 1940s, _____ technology has only recently been widely accepted mad used for increasing numbers of structures, wildland, coal, tire storage, and other fires involving deep seated fuels.
The formula of class A foam includes hydrocarbon _____ that reduce the surface tension of water in the foam solution.
The shelf life of properly stored foam solution can be as long as ____ years making it an economical choice to purchase in bulk quantities.
Class A foam concentrates may be mixed with percentages as little as ____ to ____.
0.1 to 1.0 percent
The ______ refers to the minimum amount of foam solution that must be applied to a fire, per minute, per square foot, of fire. The ______ rate for class A foam is the same as the minimum required flow rate of water.
Rate of application
Is applied to suppress fires involving flammable and combustible liquids. It is also used to suppress vapors from un ignited spills.
Class B foam
Class B Should be stored in cool areas to maximize shelf life: approximately___ for protein based foams and __ to ___ for synthetic foam.
20 to 25 years
The chemical properties of class B foam concentrates and their impact on the environment may vary depending on the product and manufacturer. Generally protein based products are considered safe for the environment. However, consult the _____ provided by the manufacturer for the specific safety information.
Safety data sheets (SDSs)
Class B foams are mixed from ___ to ____.
One to Six percent
The concentration for hydrocarbon fuels is normally ___ to ____, while ___ to ___ is used for polar solvents, based on the manufacturers recommendations.
1 to 3 percent
3 to 6 percent
____ is generally described as being low, medium, or high.
NFPA 11 states that low expansion foam contains an air/solution ratio of up to 20 parts finished foam for every part of foam solution, a _____:_____ ratio.
Medium expansion foam is commonly used at a rate of ____:___ up to ___:___ through hydraulically operated nozzle type deliveries.
20:1 to 200:1 ratio
When high expansion foam is used the expansion rate is from _____:______ to ____:______.
200:1 to 1000:1
Derived from animal protein sources such as hooves, horns, or feather meal.
Regular protein foam generally has good heat stability and ______. However, it is not as fluid as other low expansion foams when applied to a force source.
Burn back resistance
A combination of protein based foam and synthetic foam, contains protein concentrate to which fluorochemical surfactants are added
May be made alcohol resistant with the he addition of ammonia salts suspended in organic solvents. The alcohol-resistive properties will be effective for approximately 15 minutes, offering high water retention.
Concentrate is based on the technology of fluoroprotein foam for long lasting heat resistance and the capabilities of aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) for quick knockdown.
Film forming fluoroprotein foam
Or commonly called ______ is currently the most commonly used synthetic foam concentrate.
Aqueous film forming foam AFFF (A triple F)
Is commonly available for use on polar solvents.
Alcohol resistant aqueous film forming foam.
Type of foam delivery device that is located in the water supply line near the nozzle. The foam concentrate is drawn into the water line using the Venturi method.
In line foam eductor
The _____ is a basic foam proportioner that is designed to be attached directly to the pump panel discharge or connected at some point in the hose lay
In-line foam eductor
This______ is determined by adding the nozzle pressure, friction loss in the hose between the eductor and the nozzle, and the elevation pressure.
____ must be properly maintained after each use in order to ensure readiness for the next incident. Use a bucket of water to immerse the foam pick up tube, letting it induct water for at least one minute.
The foam concentrate inlet to the eductor should be no more than _____ above the liquid surface of the foam concentrate. If the inlet is too high, the foam concentrate will either be too lean or may not be inducted at all
The _____ uses a modified Venturi design to draw concentrate into its water stream
Self educting master stream foam nozzle
It allows the foam concentrate supply to be located as far 3,000 feet away from a self educting master stream nozzle
Jet ratio controller (JRC)
Are one of the most common types of installed proportioners used in modern apparatus. This system consists of small return (bypass) water line connected from the discharge side of the pump back to the intake side of the pump
Foam concentrate proportioner that operates in tandem with a fire water pump to ensure a proper foam concentrate to water mixture
Bypass-type balanced pressure proportioner
The _____ used on large mobile apparatus installations, such ARFF vehicles, is one of the most accurate methods of foam Proportioning .
Bypass type balanced pressure proportioner
Apparatus with a _______ feature a foam concentrate line supplied by a separate foam concentrate pump connected to each discharge outlet
Bypass type balanced pressure proportioner
Apparatus mounted foam system that injects the correct amount of foam into the pump piping, thereby supplying all discharges with foam.
Variable flow variable rate direct injection system
Proportioners generally operate off power supplied by the apparatus electrical system, although some larger units may use a combination of electric and hydraulic power.
Variable flow variable rate direct injection
Foam Proportioning system that is used in both fixed and mobile applications a variable speed mechanism drives the foam pump and automatically monitors the flow of foam to produce an effective foam solution
Variable flow demand type balanced pressure proportioner
A______, also known as a pump/demand system, consists of a variable speed mechanism driven electrically or hydraulically, that operates a foam concentrate pump.
Variable flow demand type balanced pressure Proportioning system
There are two types of medium and high expansion foam generators:
Water aspirating and Mechanical blower
The ______ method of fire attack with class A foam consists of applying finished foam directly onto the burning material
A method for class B foam application, the _____ involves directing a foam fire stream on the ground near the front edge of a burning liquid spill. The foam will then roll across the surface.
Another method employed with class B foam when a vertical surface is near or within a pool of ignitable liquid is the _______method
Bank down method
The _____ of application may be employed. This is the most common method of application for above ground storage tank fires. It involves the direction of a class b foam fire stream into the air above the fire, allowing the foam to gently rain down on the surface of the fuel
Rain down method
The Primary concern regarding the environmental impact of foam is the effect of finished foam after application to a fire or spill. The Severity of impact may vary based on the concentrate and type of class A or B solution. ______ of these products is determined by the rate at which natural bacteria can degrade the foam.
The process of ______ results in the consumption of oxygen. When foam solution makes it way to a natural water source this reduction of oxygen may result in the destruction of vegetation and aquatic life.
Generally known as durable or _____, fire blocking gels, or aqueous fire fighting gels, these products retain their fire retarding properties longer then class A foam.
Durable agents are applied for extinguishment, fire line construction, or structure protection through any standard handline nozzle or master stream device. They also may be _____
Some fire departments use these for bulk storage, but they are more common in industrial applications.
This method is commonly used on class A foams.
Foam is proportioned using one of four basic methods
Hydrocarbon fuels, such as crude oil, fuel, oil, gasoline, benzene, and kerosene, are petroleum based and have a specific gravity of less than one and will float on water. _______ is effective in extinguishing these fires and suppressing vapors because it floats on the surface of hydrocarbon fuels.
Class B foams
Polar solvent fuels, such as alcohol, acetone ketones, and esters, are known as miscible liquids because they mix with water. Special ____formulations of firefighting foam must be used when these flammable liquids are encountered
Are designed solely for use on hydrocarbon fuels and are not effective on polar solvent products regardless of the concentration that is applied.
Class B foams
Foam extinguishes and or suppresses vapors by the following methods
Suppressing or smothering
When used in conjunction with compressed air foam systems (CAFS) _____ provides excellent insulation qualities
Class A foam
Class A foam may be used with fog nozzles, aerating foam nozzles , and medium and high expansion devices: and compressed air foam systems using most nozzles, including _____
Solid stream nozzles
Most foam nozzles will produce more stable foam at _____ percent concentration than 0.5 percent concentration
The following guidelines are commonly used for proportioning class A foam
Fire attack and overhaul with standard fog nozzles 0.2 to 0.5 %
Exposure protection with standard fog nozzles 0.5 to 1.0 %
Any application with aspirating foam nozzles 0.3 to 0.7 %
Any application with CAFS 0.2 to 0.5 %
The ______ for foam also plays a major role in the effectiveness of the product
A short duration _____ provides the most rapid wetting
While a longer _____ provides an insulating layer for a longer period of time
Foam concentrates of the same type, which are manufactured to military specifications ________ may be mixed at any time with no adverse effects
Mil spec concentrates
The method used to aerate foam solution will create varying degrees of expansion based on the following
Type of foam concentrate used
Accurate proportioning of the foam concentrate in the solution
Quality of the foam concentrate
Method of aeration
This concentrate is generally used at a concentration of three to six percent based on manufacturers recommendations
Alcohol resistant AFFF concentrate
Alcohol resistant AFFF should be applied gently to a fuel product in order to allow the membrane to form. ______ are generally the best for preserving the membrane that forms on the surface of these products
A simple and common method of foam proportioning involves the use of a
Portable foam proportioner
The pressure at the discharge side of the eductor must not exceed________of the eductor inlet pressure.
This master stream nozzle is deployed when flows in excess of 350 gpm is required
Self educting master stream foam nozzles
Master stream foam nozzles are capable of delivering
A major advantage of the self educting nozzle is the pressure drop is much lower _______ than most standard foam nozzle eductors
10 percent or less
Installed in-line eductors are most commonly used to proportion
Class B foam
Are generally not effective for proportioning the very low concentrations used in class A foam operations
Installed in-line foam eductors
In order to prevent excess foam concentrate from being drawn into the eductor, the driver operator must close the ______ whenever the line is not flowing
By pass valve
Variable flow variable rate direct injection systems proportion foam concentrates from _____
0.1 to 3 percent
Is the simplest method of proportioning foam
Batch mixing or the dump in method
Generally_____ is only used with class A foam concentrates and regular AFFF concentrates not alcohol resistant
Another significant disadvantage of batch mixing is that the entire tank is converted to
Because of these short comings, ______ is used only if no other proportioning method is available
The _____ features a rotary air compressor and a standard centrifugal pump
CAFS compressed air foam system
Most structural and wild land suppression operations conducted with CAFS use an air flow rate of _____ of foam solution
0.5 to 1.0
The most common handline nozzles used for foam applications are
Air aspirating nozzles
The use of a ______ is limited to the application of class A foam from a CAFS
Smooth bore nozzle
Smooth bore nozzles provide an effective stream with excellent reach capabilities using this system
CAFS compressed air foam systems
Their most efficient usage is during application of regular AFFF and class A foam
Firefighters may operate fixed flow, selective flow, or automatic fog nozzles, when applying a ______
Low expansion, short duration foam blanket
These nozzles can be used with class a foam in wild land firefighting applications, and are the only nozzles that should be used with protein and fluroprotien concentrates
Air aspirating nozzles
The provide maximum expansion of the agent, but since most of the steams energy is used to introduce ai, it is not able to reach as far as a standard fog nozzle
Air aspirating nozzle
Industrial foam pumpers and ARFF apparatus are often equipped with aerating foam
Master stream nozzles
Produces foam contains very high air content that is well suited for incidents of total flooding
It’s use is limited to high expansion applications