Flashcards in St Chpt 11 Deck (81):
As part of the size up process, the incident commander must consider the buildings ________ .
Firefighters working at a store or office occupancy fire ____ more likely to be killed than when working at a residential fire.
5 1/2 times
Is a measure of the number of people in a given area.
Usually state occupant density as the number of square feet per person
In some assembly occupancies, the maximum density is ____ per person
If the area is not posted, a rough approximation of the number of people who could safely occupy an area can be determined by dividing the area in ft by the _______
Occupant density factor
Colleges are technically categorized as business occupancies when classrooms accommodate less than ______ and as assembly occupancies when the room accommodates ____ or more students.
As an occupancy used for the gathering of 50 or more persons for deliberation, worship, entertainment, eating, drinking, amusement, awaiting transportation, or similar uses or used as a special amusement building, regardless of occupant load.
The primary challenge in managing an incident in an occupied assembly building is removing people to the outside or to place of ______
Fires in places of assembly are fairly rare, accounting for approximately ____ of all structure fires, but the potential for a large loss of life fire in these buildings requires pre incident planning and special tactical considerations
Bell towers typically contain large, heavy bells That are higher than the church and present a potential
Older Gothic style churches typically have large timbers supporting the roof structure whereas modern churches often have_______
Truss roof structures
Large church fire usually dictate a defense of operation and often result in
Full or partial collapse
Is it common problem in eating and drinking establishments
As mentioned previous; ________, the second tactical priority, often is the most effective means of accomplishing the top tactical priority of life safety
Occupant density maximums are ____ per person in elementary and High school classrooms
Evacuating trapped victims through the _____ is typically the most effective and safest option
Establishing an ________ that ensures complete evacuation and accounting for all students, teachers, and staff is essential
Occupant accountability system
Are required in all kindergarten through 12th grade schools
A basketball court or auditorium will likely be classified as an ______ within the educational occupancy
Any college classroom with ____ or more students is considered an assembly occupancy
Is a major concern in hospitals and nursing homes
Moving people on beds with life support equipment is difficult, to say the least; therefore, the _______ is the preferred option
Defend in place strategy
Most ares of the untied states now have codes requiring ______ in nursing homes, a trend that has greatly reduced the number of large loss of life fires in health care facilities
When properly installed and operating sprinkler system is in place, fires are generally limited to one room, and the primary tactic is to move patients out of smoky areas to places of _____
If the nursing home is not sprinkler protected or the sprinkler system is not operating properly, use _____ to contain the fire whenever possible.
Moving patients out of harms way is the primary tactic, but extinguishment is essential to defend the place of ______
Staffing will generally be less at a _______ and there may not be places of safe refuge where a defend in place strategy can be implemented
Limited care facility
Many apartment buildings rent exclusively to elderly occupants. These buildings will be classified as a _______ and have less stringent fire protection code requirements
Most fires, most fatal fires, and most property loss occur in ______.
In ______ the hours when residents are sleeping are the most dangerous
Many high rise buildings are now constructed for use by senior citizens and family living. Expect to find many people through out the structure in need of assistance, including the possibility of the
Convergence cluster phenomenon
Many guests attempted to use stairs to exit the building but encountered smoke as they descended. They then sought refuge in a room other than their own. This resulted in several people being in a single room, rather than the expected one to five guests per room.
Convergence cluster phenomenon
The _______ should reinforce the importance of conducting a complete, systematic search
Convergence cluster phenomenon
Whenever it is safe to conduct an offensive attack, a primary and secondary search should be conducted, unless there is a ______ and ______ report that everyone escaped
Credible and verifiable
When the fire occurs at night, the primary search should normally begin in
As is most often the case, _______ is usually the best way to achieve the life safety objective
Further, _____ is a leading cause of fire in student housing; therefore, a heavily involved fire with multiple victims is not uncommon
Is typically the largest problem facing fire forces in mercantile occupancies, but don’t be misled; the danger to life safety may be substantial.
________ is a major issue in all mercantile occupancies where high dollar inventories are common and many items are extremely sensitive to smoke and water damage
Occupant density can be as high as one person per 100 ft which is considerably less crowded than most places of assembly but more densely populated than many other occupancies
Occupant density is generally low in _______, especially the automated warehouse
The risk of a fast moving fire or explosion may be high within the _____, which could have an immense fuel load.
Most one story ______ are of non combustible construction with metal truss roof structures
Firefighters are more likely to be killed in these large commercial structures than in residential fires, but the danger increases exponentially in ________ where the firefighter fatality rate is much greater than in the typical home fire.
Large vacant buildings
Only an extra ____is capable of handling a fire in large quantities of wooden pallets
Extra hazard sprinkler system
Should be used when dealing with extra hazard storage
Sprinkler system calculations
When calculating rate of flow And developing pre-incident plans, remember that in many cases the fire will be limited to a
Small area within a very large building
One of the most common risk management measures involves installation of _________
Suppression systems or built in fire protection
Often include an accountability process that can assist the ic In facilitating an orderly evacuation and accounting for plant personnel
Emergency action plans
The occupant density is usually higher in an ________ as compared to a storage facility
Industrial occupancy facility
Are notable because they tend to cause a large loss of life and/or large financial loss.
Industrial occupancy fire
In the ______ setting, the main tactical activity often involves controlling a manufacturing process or otherwise stabilizing the incident to protect life and property
Free burning fires involving wooden framing, combustible materials, or debris can develop a large fireball with subsequent high levels of ______
A building that is only partially constructed or one that is partially razed is more likely to ______ than a finished structure
The first step in determining evacuation needs is an evaluation of the ______
Time of day, building size, and occupancy type
An awareness rating of ____ would mean that all occupants within this occupancy would be expected to be fully awake and mentally unimpaired
An awareness rating of ____ would be given to an occupancy where occupants are totally unaware, such as people who are under general anesthesia
Are promulgated to avoid the repetition of past mistakes
Fire control effort must place a high priority on keeping the fire out of
If the fire can be controlled quickly and many occupants are in danger, ______ is generally the best choice
Loser loss of life fires are unheard of in fully _____buildings when the sprinkler system is installed and maintained in compliance with nationally recognized codes and standards
Finding and accessing the fire location is a key element of a ____ in any large, complex structure
Most campuses will have one or more large classroom facilities that hold 200 or more students. These classrooms resemble an _____ and are classified as such.
Large number of people located in a single building always represent
Life safety concerns
Health care facilities use ______ within the facility during evacuations
Places of safe refuge
The nursing staff should be able to account for patients, but in most cases, they will not be able to account for visitors or doctors. Therefore a_____
Primary search must be conducted
Occupants of these facilities, who are mostly elderly, would have great difficulty descending a ladder, therefore, attempting to rescue residents using fire department ladders would be an option of near last resort
Limited care facilities
Modern and old prisons alike tend to be overcrowded, holding more prisoners than they were designed to house. Any form of overcrowding increases the
Large loss of life fires have occurred frequently in
In residential occupancies, as with most occupancy types, there is a direct correlation between
Life safety and time of day
Firefighters generally feel confident attacking a fire in a _______ bread and butter fire
One and two family dwelling
The ______ is directly proportional to the number of units in a single building.
Life safety problem
Larger buildings with more apartment units require a larger staffing commitment to complete the
Primary and secondary search
With large number of people potentially exposed to the fire and the lack of a reliable evacuation status report, ____ becomes even more important
Is a critical issue in dormitory and off campus housing
Most rooms in dormitory and off campus housing will be within the flow capacity of
Standpipe or preconnected hose streams
Time factors are critical in sizing up a
Preincident planning, which includes identifying and outlining the responsibilities of plant personnel, is key to successfully controlling fires in
Buildings can be handled as two buildings due to fire resistive separations
Separated multiple occupancy