Flashcards in Buidling Construction 🏢🏨🏦🏛⛪️ Deck (37):
In physics, the ________ states that the intensity of the thermal radiation is a function of the fourth power of the absolute temperature of the thermal radiation source.
The _______ is widely used in fire protection to establish the required performance standards in building codes. The primary means used to determine a fire resistance rating is to subject the component to be evaluated to the heat of a standard fire in a test furnace
Standard fire resistant test
The most commonly used test for determining combustibility is
_______ standard test method for behavior of materials in a vertical tube furnace at 750oc
ASTM E 136
A back and fourth effect due to variations in the velocity of the wind
An _______ is a load applied to the center of the cross section of a structural member and perpendicular to that cross section
Materials with a ______ rating are required in corridors that provide exit access.
Class B (26-75)
The most common means for protecting openings through fire rated walls is by the use of ______.
A _______ consists of layers of beams placed at right angles to each other that are usually encased in concrete
Wood panel products are graded for their structural use and their exposure durability. A grade stamp appears on the back of a structural panel that indicates its intended structural application and its suitability for exposure to water. The ______ of 32/16 indicates that the panel may be used as roof sheathing on rafters 32 inches apart or as subflooring on joists 16 inches apart.
The vertical combustible spaces between the studs in________provide a channel for the rapid communication of fire from the floor to floor.
Balloon frame construction
The interior of a wood frame building can be finished using a number of materials including ordinary plywood or OSB. Where a degree of fire resistance is required, the ______ materials most commonly used are gypsum board or plaster.
Interior Finish materials
A _______ is an extension of a masonry or Steel wall that projects above the roof. Found on exterior masonry walls and fire walls of buildings with combustible roofs. Project from 1 to 3 feet or more above a roof usually without lateral support.
When a beam transmits a large vertical load to a masonry wall, the wall may be increased in thickness at the point of support with a pilaster to reduce the compressive stresses in the masonry.
_______ in commercial buildings, for example, are frequently supported on pilasters.
Wood roof trusses
A collapsing roof may dislodge only a parapet or an entire wall. Firefighters should always assume that if a wall collapses it will fall out from the building a distance _______.
At least equal to the height of the wall
A _____ is constructed as a solid arch that may be built up from angles and webs with a cross section similar to that of a beam.
A ______ consists of a ceiling material suspended from the supports for the floor or ceiling above. The most common method is to use mineral tiles in a steel framework suspended by wires .
When the concrete arrives at the job site, its quality is checked by administering a test
When precast beams are to be supported by columns, the beams may be supported by ________ cast into the columns. A ________ also known as a bracket, is a ledge that projects from the column and supports the beam.
Are non combustible and produce fire resistant roof coverings that have excellent resistance to flying brands.
Clay tiles, slate, and cement tiles
Is the transfer of heat energy through space by electromagnetic waves
From a fire protection standpoint, one of the most basic properties of building materials is their degree of ________.
Has been commonly referred to as “ordinary construction”
The _________ is the product of the weight of the combustibles multiplied by their heat of combustion
The impact effect the wind has on a surface. This force may be reduced by streamlining the surfaced encountered.
Tends to pull the material apart
Have an intermediate landing between floors and reserve direction at any point
The __________ is the most commonly used method for evaluating the surface burning characteristics of materials
Steiner tunnel test
When a building is constructed using a structural frame for its main structural support, the exterior wall functions only to enclose the building and is known as a _________.
Three types of joints can be used to join laminated members end to end.
Butt, scarf, and finger joint
Ignition temperatures for wood are difficult to measure precisely because the ignition temperature of wood is affected by such variables as the following
Density of wood
Size and form of the wood
Rate of heating
Nature of heating source
The vertical combustible spaces between the studs in __________ provide a channel for the rapid communication of fire from floor to floor
The mass of a masonry wall is significant to fire personnel because non reinforced masonry walls can _______ when a building becomes heavily involved in fire thus posing a serious safety risk to emergency responders.
Because intersecting masonry walls tend to support each other, the corners of the building or other points of intersection, such as _________ and __________ will be the strongest points in a masonry structure.
Stairwells or elevator shafts
The speed with which unprotected steel fails when it is exposed to fire depends on several factors
Mass of the steel members
Intensity of the exposing fires
Load supported by steel
Type of connections used to join the steel members
Type of steel
The single most important factor in determining the ultimate strength of concrete is the _________
Water to cement ratio
Has a break in the slope of the roof on all four sides